Articles | Volume 7, issue 10
Research article 07 Oct 2014
Research article | 07 Oct 2014
Construction of merged satellite total O3 and NO2 time series in the tropics for trend studies and evaluation by comparison to NDACC SAOZ measurements
M. Pastel et al.
E. Eckert, T. von Clarmann, M. Kiefer, G. P. Stiller, S. Lossow, N. Glatthor, D. A. Degenstein, L. Froidevaux, S. Godin-Beekmann, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, M. Pastel, W. Steinbrecht, D. P. J. Swart, K. A. Walker, and P. F. Bernath
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2571–2589,
S. Studer, K. Hocke, M. Pastel, S. Godin-Beekmann, and N. Kämpfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
Audrey Lecouffe, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Andrea Pazmiño, and Alain Hauchecorne
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This study uses a model developped in France at LATMOS to analyse the behavior of the Antarctic polar vortex from 1979 to 2020. We have found that the edge intensity of the polar vortex is higher at the end of the winter, while its edge position is less extended during this period. The polar vortex is stronger and last longer during solar maximum years. Breakup date of the vortex is link to the ozone hole and maximum wind speed.
Kai Krause, Folkard Wittrock, Andreas Richter, Stefan Schmitt, Denis Pöhler, Andreas Weigelt, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5791–5807,Short summary
Ships are an important source of key pollutants. Usually, these are measured aboard the ship or on the coast using in situ instruments. This study shows how active optical remote sensing can be used to measure ship emissions and how to determine emission rates of individual ships out of those measurements. These emission rates are valuable input for the assessment of the influence of shipping emissions in regions close to the shipping lanes.
Isabelle De Smedt, Gaia Pinardi, Corinne Vigouroux, Steven Compernolle, Alkis Bais, Nuria Benavent, Folkert Boersma, Ka-Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Pascal Hedelt, François Hendrick, Hitoshi Irie, Vinod Kumar, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Bavo Langerock, Christophe Lerot, Cheng Liu, Diego Loyola, Ankie Piters, Andreas Richter, Claudia Rivera Cárdenas, Fabian Romahn, Robert George Ryan, Vinayak Sinha, Nicolas Theys, Jonas Vlietinck, Thomas Wagner, Ting Wang, Huan Yu, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12561–12593,Short summary
This paper assess the performances of the TROPOMI formaldehyde observations compared to its predecessor OMI at different spatial and temporal scales. We also use a global network of MAX-DOAS instruments to validate both satellite datasets for a large range of HCHO columns. The precision obtained with daily TROPOMI observations is comparable to monthly OMI observations. We present clear detection of weak HCHO column enhancements related to shipping emissions in the Indian Ocean.
Stefan F. Schreier, Tim Bösch, Andreas Richter, Kezia Lange, Michael Revesz, Philipp Weihs, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and Christoph Lotteraner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5299–5318,Short summary
This paper reports on the evaluation of aerosol profiling products retrieved from ground-based MAX-DOAS instruments using the BOREAS algorithm. Aerosol extinction profiles, near-surface aerosol extinction, and aerosol optical depth are compared to measurements collected with ceilometer, sun photometer, and in situ instruments. We show that these MAX-DOAS aerosol profiling products provide useful information to study spatial and temporal variations above the urban area of Vienna.
Jānis Puķīte, Christian Borger, Steffen Dörner, Myojeong Gu, Udo Frieß, Andreas Carlos Maier, Carl-Fredrik Enell, Uwe Raffalksi, Andreas Richter, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
Chlorine dioxide (OClO) is used as an indicator for chlorine activation. We present a new DOAS retrieval algorithm for OClO from measurements of TROPOMI on the Sentinel-5P satellite. To achieve a substantially improved accuracy for the weak absober OClO we consider several additional fit parameters accounting for various higher order spectral effects. The retrieved OClO slant column densities are compared with ground based zenith sky measurements.
M. Dolores Andrés Hernández, Andreas Hilboll, Helmut Ziereis, Eric Förster, Ovid O. Krüger, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Francesca Barnaba, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Jörg Schmidt, Heidi Huntrieser, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Midhun George, Vladyslav Nenakhov, Theresa Klausner, Bruna A. Holanda, Jennifer Wolf, Lisa Eirenschmalz, Marc Krebsbach, Mira L. Pöhlker, Anna B. Hedegaard, Linlu Mei, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Yangzhuoran Liu, Ralf Koppmann, Hans Schlager, Birger Bohn, Ulrich Schumann, Andreas Richter, Benjamin Schreiner, Daniel Sauer, Robert Baumann, Mariano Mertens, Patrick Jöckel, Markus Kilian, Greta Stratmann, Christopher Pöhlker, Monica Campanelli, Marco Pandolfi, Michael Sicard, Jose L. Gomez-Amo, Manuel Pujadas, Katja Bigge, Flora Kluge, Anja Schwarz, Nikos Daskalakis, David Walter, Andreas Zahn, Ulrich Pöschl, Harald Bönisch, Stephan Borrmann, Ulrich Platt, and John Phillip Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
EMeRGe provides a unique set of in-situ and remote sensing airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol particles along selected flight routes in the lower troposphere over Europe. The interpretation uses also complementary collocated ground-based and satellite measurements. The collected data help to improve the current understanding of the complex spatial distribution of trace gases and aerosol particles resulting from mixing, transport and transformation of pollution plumes over Europe.
Andrea Pazmiño, Matthias Beekmann, Florence Goutail, Dmitry Ionov, Ariane Bazureau, Manuel Nunes-Pinharanda, Alain Hauchecorne, and Sophie Godin-Beekmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
NO2 tropospheric columns and concentrations at the surface were evaluated to quantify the impact of the lockdown measures in Paris to limit the COVID-19 propagation. Meteorological conditions and NO2 trends were considered. The negative anomaly in tropospheric columns in 2020 attributed to lockdown between March 17 and May 10 (and related emission reductions) were found to be 56 % at Paris and 46 % at a suburban site. A similar anomaly was found in the data of surface concentrations.
Christophe Lerot, François Hendrick, Michel Van Roozendael, Leonardo M. A. Alvarado, Andreas Richter, Isabelle De Smedt, Nicolas Theys, Jonas Vlietinck, Huan Yu, Jeroen Van Gent, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Jean-François Müller, Pieter Valks, Diego Loyola, Hitoshi Irie, Vinod Kumar, Thomas Wagner, Stefan F. Schreier, Vinayak Sinha, Ting Wang, Pucai Wang, and Christian Retscher
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
Global measurements of glyoxal tropospheric columns from the satellite instrument TROPOMI are presented. Such measurements can contribute to the estimation of atmospheric emissions of volatile organic compounds. This new glyoxal product has been fully characterized with a comprehensive error budget, with comparison with other satellite data sets as well as with validation based on independent ground-based remote sensing glyoxal observations.
Kezia Lange, Andreas Richter, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
In this study, we investigated short time variability of NOx emissions and lifetimes on a global scale. We combined two years of satellite Sentinel-5P TROPOMI tropospheric NO2 column data with wind data. 45 NOx sources distributed around the world are analyzed. The retrieved emissions show a clear seasonal dependence. NOx lifetime shows a latitudinal dependence but only a week seasonal dependence. NOx emissions show a clear weekly pattern which in contrast is not visible for NOx lifetimes.
Ioanna Skoulidou, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Astrid Manders, Arjo Segers, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Myrto Gratsea, Dimitris Balis, Alkiviadis Bais, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, Trisevgeni Stavrakou, Jos van Geffen, Henk Eskes, and Andreas Richter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5269–5288,Short summary
The performance of LOTOS-EUROS v2.2.001 regional chemical transport model NO2 simulations is investigated over Greece from June to December 2018. Comparison with in situ NO2 measurements shows a spatial correlation coefficient of 0.86, while the model underestimates the concentrations mostly during daytime (12 to 15:00 local time). Further, the simulated tropospheric NO2 columns are evaluated against ground-based MAX-DOAS NO2 measurements and S5P/TROPOMI observations for July and December 2018.
Song Liu, Pieter Valks, Gaia Pinardi, Jian Xu, Ka Lok Chan, Athina Argyrouli, Ronny Lutz, Steffen Beirle, Ehsan Khorsandi, Frank Baier, Vincent Huijnen, Alkiviadis Bais, Sebastian Donner, Steffen Dörner, Myrto Gratsea, François Hendrick, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Kezia Lange, Ankie J. M. Piters, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, Michel Van Roozendael, Thomas Wagner, Mark Wenig, and Diego G. Loyola
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
In this work, an improved tropospheric NO2 retrieval algorithm from TROPOMI measurements over Europe is presented. The stratospheric estimation is implemented with correction for the dependency of the stratospheric NO2 on the viewing geometry. The AMF calculation is implemented using improved surface albedo, a priori NO2 profiles, and cloud correction. The improved tropospheric NO2 data show good correlations with ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements.
Myrto Gratsea, Tim Bösch, Panagiotis Kokkalis, Andreas Richter, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Stelios Kazadzis, Alexandra Tsekeri, Alexandros Papayannis, Maria Mylonaki, Vassilis Amiridis, Nikos Mihalopoulos, and Evangelos Gerasopoulos
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 749–767,
Tijl Verhoelst, Steven Compernolle, Gaia Pinardi, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Henk J. Eskes, Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Ann Mari Fjæraa, José Granville, Sander Niemeijer, Alexander Cede, Martin Tiefengraber, François Hendrick, Andrea Pazmiño, Alkiviadis Bais, Ariane Bazureau, K. Folkert Boersma, Kristof Bognar, Angelika Dehn, Sebastian Donner, Aleksandr Elokhov, Manuel Gebetsberger, Florence Goutail, Michel Grutter de la Mora, Aleksandr Gruzdev, Myrto Gratsea, Georg H. Hansen, Hitoshi Irie, Nis Jepsen, Yugo Kanaya, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Rigel Kivi, Karin Kreher, Pieternel F. Levelt, Cheng Liu, Moritz Müller, Monica Navarro Comas, Ankie J. M. Piters, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Thierry Portafaix, Cristina Prados-Roman, Olga Puentedura, Richard Querel, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, John Rimmer, Claudia Rivera Cárdenas, Lidia Saavedra de Miguel, Valery P. Sinyakov, Wolfgang Stremme, Kimberly Strong, Michel Van Roozendael, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Thomas Wagner, Folkard Wittrock, Margarita Yela González, and Claus Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 481–510,Short summary
This paper reports on the ground-based validation of the NO2 data produced operationally by the TROPOMI instrument on board the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite. Tropospheric, stratospheric, and total NO2 columns are compared to measurements collected from MAX-DOAS, ZSL-DOAS, and PGN/Pandora instruments respectively. The products are found to satisfy mission requirements in general, though negative mean differences are found at sites with high pollution levels. Potential causes are discussed.
Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Udo Frieß, François Hendrick, Carlos Alberti, Marc Allaart, Arnoud Apituley, Alkis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Stijn Berkhout, Kristof Bognar, Tim Bösch, Ilya Bruchkouski, Alexander Cede, Ka Lok Chan, Mirjam den Hoed, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Martina M. Friedrich, Arnoud Frumau, Lou Gast, Clio Gielen, Laura Gomez-Martín, Nan Hao, Arjan Hensen, Bas Henzing, Christian Hermans, Junli Jin, Karin Kreher, Jonas Kuhn, Johannes Lampel, Ang Li, Cheng Liu, Haoran Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Alexis Merlaud, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Ankie Piters, Ulrich Platt, Olga Puentedura, Andreas Richter, Stefan Schmitt, Elena Spinei, Deborah Stein Zweers, Kimberly Strong, Daan Swart, Frederik Tack, Martin Tiefengraber, René van der Hoff, Michel van Roozendael, Tim Vlemmix, Jan Vonk, Thomas Wagner, Yang Wang, Zhuoru Wang, Mark Wenig, Matthias Wiegner, Folkard Wittrock, Pinhua Xie, Chengzhi Xing, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1–35,Short summary
Multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) is a ground-based remote sensing measurement technique that derives atmospheric aerosol and trace gas vertical profiles from skylight spectra. In this study, consistency and reliability of MAX-DOAS profiles are assessed by applying nine different evaluation algorithms to spectral data recorded during an intercomparison campaign in the Netherlands and by comparing the results to colocated supporting observations.
Xin Yang, Anne-M. Blechschmidt, Kristof Bognar, Audra McClure-Begley, Sara Morris, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Andreas Richter, Henrik Skov, Kimberly Strong, David W. Tarasick, Taneil Uttal, Mika Vestenius, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15937–15967,Short summary
This is a modelling-based study on Arctic surface ozone, with a particular focus on spring ozone depletion events (i.e. with concentrations < 10 ppbv). Model experiments show that model runs with blowing-snow-sourced sea salt aerosols implemented as a source of reactive bromine can reproduce well large-scale ozone depletion events observed in the Arctic. This study supplies modelling evidence of the proposed mechanism of reactive-bromine release from blowing snow on sea ice (Yang et al., 2008).
Gaia Pinardi, Michel Van Roozendael, François Hendrick, Nicolas Theys, Nader Abuhassan, Alkiviadis Bais, Folkert Boersma, Alexander Cede, Jihyo Chong, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Anatoly Dzhola, Henk Eskes, Udo Frieß, José Granville, Jay R. Herman, Robert Holla, Jari Hovila, Hitoshi Irie, Yugo Kanaya, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Natalia Kouremeti, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Jianzhong Ma, Enno Peters, Ankie Piters, Oleg Postylyakov, Andreas Richter, Julia Remmers, Hisahiro Takashima, Martin Tiefengraber, Pieter Valks, Tim Vlemmix, Thomas Wagner, and Folkard Wittrock
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6141–6174,Short summary
We validate several GOME-2 and OMI tropospheric NO2 products with 23 MAX-DOAS and 16 direct sun instruments distributed worldwide, highlighting large horizontal inhomogeneities at several sites affecting the validation results. We propose a method for quantification and correction. We show the application of such correction reduces the satellite underestimation in almost all heterogeneous cases, but a negative bias remains over the MAX-DOAS and direct sun network ensemble for both satellites.
Sora Seo, Andreas Richter, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Ilias Bougoudis, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12285–12312,Short summary
In this study, we present spatial distributions of occurrence frequency of enhanced total BrO column and various meteorological parameters affecting it in the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice regions by using 10 years of GOME-2 measurements and meteorological model data. Statistical analysis using the long-term dataset shows clear differences in the meteorological conditions between the mean field and the situation of enhanced total BrO columns in both polar sea ice regions.
Ilias Bougoudis, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Andreas Richter, Sora Seo, John Philip Burrows, Nicolas Theys, and Annette Rinke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11869–11892,Short summary
A 22-year (1996 to 2017) consistent Arctic tropospheric BrO dataset derived from four satellite remote sensing instruments is presented. An increase in tropospheric BrO VCDs over this period, and especially during polar springs, can be seen. Comparisons of tropospheric BrO VCDs with first-year sea ice reveal a moderate spatial and temporal correlation between the two, suggesting that the increase in first-year sea ice in the Arctic has an impact on tropospheric BrO abundancies.
Alexis Merlaud, Livio Belegante, Daniel-Eduard Constantin, Mirjam Den Hoed, Andreas Carlos Meier, Marc Allaart, Magdalena Ardelean, Maxim Arseni, Tim Bösch, Hugues Brenot, Andreea Calcan, Emmanuel Dekemper, Sebastian Donner, Steffen Dörner, Mariana Carmelia Balanica Dragomir, Lucian Georgescu, Anca Nemuc, Doina Nicolae, Gaia Pinardi, Andreas Richter, Adrian Rosu, Thomas Ruhtz, Anja Schönhardt, Dirk Schuettemeyer, Reza Shaiganfar, Kerstin Stebel, Frederik Tack, Sorin Nicolae Vâjâiac, Jeni Vasilescu, Jurgen Vanhamel, Thomas Wagner, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5513–5535,Short summary
The AROMAT campaigns took place in Romania in 2014 and 2015. They aimed to test airborne observation systems dedicated to air quality studies and to verify the concept of such campaigns in support of the validation of space-borne atmospheric missions. We show that airborne measurements of NO2 can be valuable for the validation of air quality satellites. For H2CO and SO2, the validation should involve ground-based measurement systems at key locations that the AROMAT measurements help identify.
Steven Compernolle, Tijl Verhoelst, Gaia Pinardi, José Granville, Daan Hubert, Arno Keppens, Sander Niemeijer, Bruno Rino, Alkis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Folkert Boersma, John P. Burrows, Isabelle De Smedt, Henk Eskes, Florence Goutail, François Hendrick, Alba Lorente, Andrea Pazmino, Ankie Piters, Enno Peters, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, Jos van Geffen, Michel Van Roozendael, Thomas Wagner, and Jean-Christopher Lambert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8017–8045,Short summary
Tropospheric and stratospheric NO2 columns from the OMI QA4ECV NO2 satellite product are validated by comparison with ground-based measurements at 11 sites. The OMI stratospheric column has a small negative bias, and the OMI tropospheric column has a stronger negative bias relative to the ground-based data. Discrepancies are attributed to comparison errors (e.g. difference in horizontal smoothing) and measurement errors (e.g. clouds, aerosols, vertical smoothing and a priori proﬁle assumptions).
Karin Kreher, Michel Van Roozendael, Francois Hendrick, Arnoud Apituley, Ermioni Dimitropoulou, Udo Frieß, Andreas Richter, Thomas Wagner, Johannes Lampel, Nader Abuhassan, Li Ang, Monica Anguas, Alkis Bais, Nuria Benavent, Tim Bösch, Kristof Bognar, Alexander Borovski, Ilya Bruchkouski, Alexander Cede, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Henning Finkenzeller, David Garcia-Nieto, Clio Gielen, Laura Gómez-Martín, Nan Hao, Bas Henzing, Jay R. Herman, Christian Hermans, Syedul Hoque, Hitoshi Irie, Junli Jin, Paul Johnston, Junaid Khayyam Butt, Fahim Khokhar, Theodore K. Koenig, Jonas Kuhn, Vinod Kumar, Cheng Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Alexis Merlaud, Abhishek K. Mishra, Moritz Müller, Monica Navarro-Comas, Mareike Ostendorf, Andrea Pazmino, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Manuel Pinharanda, Ankie Piters, Ulrich Platt, Oleg Postylyakov, Cristina Prados-Roman, Olga Puentedura, Richard Querel, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Anja Schönhardt, Stefan F. Schreier, André Seyler, Vinayak Sinha, Elena Spinei, Kimberly Strong, Frederik Tack, Xin Tian, Martin Tiefengraber, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Jeroen van Gent, Rainer Volkamer, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Shanshan Wang, Zhuoru Wang, Mark Wenig, Folkard Wittrock, Pinhua H. Xie, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2169–2208,Short summary
In September 2016, 36 spectrometers from 24 institutes measured a number of key atmospheric pollutants during an instrument intercomparison campaign (CINDI-2) at Cabauw, the Netherlands. Here we report on the outcome of this intercomparison exercise. The three major goals were to characterise the differences between the participating instruments, to define a robust methodology for performance assessment, and to contribute to the harmonisation of the measurement settings and retrieval methods.
Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Joaquim Arteta, Adriana Coman, Lyana Curier, Henk Eskes, Gilles Foret, Clio Gielen, Francois Hendrick, Virginie Marécal, Frédérik Meleux, Jonathan Parmentier, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Ankie J. M. Piters, Matthieu Plu, Andreas Richter, Arjo Segers, Mikhail Sofiev, Álvaro M. Valdebenito, Michel Van Roozendael, Julius Vira, Tim Vlemmix, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2795–2823,Short summary
MAX-DOAS tropospheric NO2 vertical column retrievals from a set of European measurement stations are compared to regional air quality models which contribute to the operational Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). Correlations are on the order of 35 %–75 %; large differences occur for individual pollution plumes. The results demonstrate that future model development needs to concentrate on improving representation of diurnal cycles and associated temporal scalings.
Leonardo M. A. Alvarado, Andreas Richter, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Andreas Hilboll, Anna B. Kalisz Hedegaard, Oliver Schneising, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2057–2072,Short summary
We present CHOCHO and HCHO columns retrieved from measurements by TROPOMI. Elevated amounts of CHOCHO and HCHO are observed during the fire season in BC, Canada, where a large number of fires occurred in 2018. CHOCHO and HCHO plumes from individual fires are observed in air masses travelling over distances of up to 1500 km. Comparison with FLEXPART simulations with different lifetimes shows that effective lifetimes of 20 h and more are needed to explain the observations.
Sebastian Donner, Jonas Kuhn, Michel Van Roozendael, Alkiviadis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Tim Bösch, Kristof Bognar, Ilya Bruchkouski, Ka Lok Chan, Steffen Dörner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Udo Frieß, François Hendrick, Christian Hermans, Junli Jin, Ang Li, Jianzhong Ma, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Andreas Richter, Stefan F. Schreier, André Seyler, Kimberly Strong, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Yang Wang, Pinhua Xie, Jin Xu, Xiaoyi Zhao, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 685–712,Short summary
The calibration of the elevation angles of MAX-DOAS instruments is important for the correct interpretation of such MAX-DOAS measurements. We present and evaluate different methods for the elevation calibration of MAX-DOAS instruments which were applied during the CINDI-2 field campaign.
André Seyler, Andreas C. Meier, Folkard Wittrock, Lisa Kattner, Barbara Mathieu-Üffing, Enno Peters, Andreas Richter, Thomas Ruhtz, Anja Schönhardt, Stefan Schmolke, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5959–5977,Short summary
This study describes a novel application of an
onion-peelingapproach to MAX-DOAS measurements of shipping emissions to study the inhomogeneous NO2 field above a shipping lane. It is shown how the method can be used to derive the approximate plume positions in the observed area, and, by using a simple Gaussian plume model, to calculate in-plume NO2 volume mixing ratios. For validation, a comparison to airborne imaging DOAS measurements during the NOSE campaign in July 2013 is included.
Katerina Garane, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Tijl Verhoelst, Christophe Lerot, Klaus-Peter Heue, Vitali Fioletov, Dimitrios Balis, Alkiviadis Bais, Ariane Bazureau, Angelika Dehn, Florence Goutail, Jose Granville, Debora Griffin, Daan Hubert, Arno Keppens, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Diego Loyola, Chris McLinden, Andrea Pazmino, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Alberto Redondas, Fabian Romahn, Pieter Valks, Michel Van Roozendael, Jian Xu, Claus Zehner, Christos Zerefos, and Walter Zimmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5263–5287,Short summary
The Sentinel-5 Precursor TROPOMI near real time (NRTI) and offline (OFFL) total ozone column (TOC) products are validated against direct-sun and twilight zenith-sky ground-based TOC measurements and other already known spaceborne sensors. The results show that the TROPOMI TOC measurements are in very good agreement with the ground-based measurements and satellite sensor measurements and that they are well within the product requirements.
Lisa K. Behrens, Andreas Hilboll, Andreas Richter, Enno Peters, Leonardo M. A. Alvarado, Anna B. Kalisz Hedegaard, Folkard Wittrock, John P. Burrows, and Mihalis Vrekoussis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10257–10278,Short summary
MAX-DOAS measurements were conducted on the research vessel Maria S. Merian during a cruise from the Azores to South Africa in October 2016. The measurements indicate enhanced levels of HCHO and CHOCHO over the remote Atlantic Ocean, which is unexpected due to their short lifetime. Precursors of these gases or gas–aerosol combinations might be transported. Model simulations indicate potential source regions over the African continent, probably related to biomass burning or biogenic emissions.
Enno Peters, Mareike Ostendorf, Tim Bösch, André Seyler, Anja Schönhardt, Stefan F. Schreier, Jeroen Sebastiaan Henzing, Folkard Wittrock, Andreas Richter, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4171–4190,Short summary
A novel imaging-DOAS instrument (IMPACT) is presented for measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the atmosphere. The instrument combines full-azimuthal pointing (360°) with a large vertical coverage (40°). Complete panoramic scans and vertical NO2 profiles around the measurement site are acquired at a temporal resolution of 15 min. In addition, information about the aerosol phase function is retrieved from O4 slant columns along multiple almucantar scans measured simultaneously by IMPACT.
Pablo Facundo Orte, Elian Wolfram, Jacobo Salvador, Akira Mizuno, Nelson Bègue, Hassan Bencherif, Juan Lucas Bali, Raúl D'Elia, Andrea Pazmiño, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Hirofumi Ohyama, and Jonathan Quiroga
Ann. Geophys., 37, 613–629,Short summary
We analysed an event of short-term ozone variability due to the passage of the polar vortex over Río Gallegos (southern Argentina) with the aim of highlighting the capability of a millimetre-wave radiometer to observe ozone in the stratosphere and the low mesosphere with a high temporal resolution. It is particularly important in this subpolar region due to the high variation that this gas can suffer as a consequence of the passage of the polar vortex and the ozone hole during spring.
Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Oliver Schneising, Sven Krautwurst, Christopher W. O'Dell, Andreas Richter, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9371–9383,Short summary
The quantification of anthropogenic emissions with current CO2 satellite sensors is difficult, but NO2 is co-emitted, making it a suitable tracer of recently emitted CO2. We analyze enhancements of CO2 and NO2 observed by OCO-2 and S5P and estimate the CO2 plume cross-sectional fluxes that we compare with emission databases. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of simultaneous satellite observations of CO2 and NO2 as envisaged for the European Copernicus anthropogenic CO2 monitoring mission
Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Florence Goutail, René Stübi, and Geir Braathen
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Publication in AMT not foreseen
Sora Seo, Andreas Richter, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Ilias Bougoudis, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2913–2932,Short summary
TROPOMI on board the Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor platform can measure various atmospheric compositions at high spatial resolution and improved spectral resolution compared to its predecessors. Bromine monoxide (BrO) is one of the gases that can be derived from the measured radiances of TROPOMI using the differential optical absorption spectroscopy method. In this paper, we present the first retrieval results of BrO column amounts from TROPOMI observations on global and regional scales.
Thomas Wagner, Steffen Beirle, Nuria Benavent, Tim Bösch, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Steffen Dörner, Caroline Fayt, Udo Frieß, David García-Nieto, Clio Gielen, David González-Bartolome, Laura Gomez, François Hendrick, Bas Henzing, Jun Li Jin, Johannes Lampel, Jianzhong Ma, Kornelia Mies, Mónica Navarro, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Olga Puentedura, Janis Puķīte, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Reza Shaiganfar, Holger Sihler, Michel Van Roozendael, Yang Wang, and Margarita Yela
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2745–2817,Short summary
In this study the consistency between MAX-DOAS measurements and radiative transfer simulations of the atmospheric O4 absorption is investigated. The study is based on measurements (2 selected days during the MADCAT campaign) as well as synthetic spectra. The uncertainties of all relevant aspects (spectral retrieval and radiative transfer simulations) are quantified. For one of the selected days, measurements and simulations do not agree within their uncertainties.
Stefan F. Schreier, Andreas Richter, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5853–5879,Short summary
In this case stuy, we have coupled ground-based remote-sensing measurements with surface in situ measurements to investigate NO2 distributions in the planetary boundary layer in the Viennese metropolitan area. We find that the application of a novel linear regression analysis for the conversion of tropospheric NO2 vertical columns into near-surface NO2 mixing ratios is promising and thus the method needs to be further explored and tested on satellite observations in future studies.
Xiaoyi Zhao, Kristof Bognar, Vitali Fioletov, Andrea Pazmino, Florence Goutail, Luis Millán, Gloria Manney, Cristen Adams, and Kimberly Strong
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2463–2483,Short summary
Ozone is one of the most widely monitored trace gases in the atmosphere. It can be measured via its strong absorption bands in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis) and infrared (IR) portions of the spectrum. Using multiple ground-based measurements and modeled data, this work provides a measurement-based evaluation of the impact of clouds on UV-visible total column ozone measurements in the high Arctic.
Udo Frieß, Steffen Beirle, Leonardo Alvarado Bonilla, Tim Bösch, Martina M. Friedrich, François Hendrick, Ankie Piters, Andreas Richter, Michel van Roozendael, Vladimir V. Rozanov, Elena Spinei, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Tim Vlemmix, Thomas Wagner, and Yang Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2155–2181,Short summary
Multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) is a widely used measurement technique for the detection of a variety of atmospheric trace gases. It enables the retrieval of aerosol and trace gas vertical profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer using appropriate retrieval algorithms. In this study, the ability of eight profile retrieval algorithms to reconstruct vertical profiles is assessed on the basis of synthetic measurements.
Song Liu, Pieter Valks, Gaia Pinardi, Isabelle De Smedt, Huan Yu, Steffen Beirle, and Andreas Richter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1029–1057,Short summary
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) plays significant roles in both stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, and the observations from satellites enable reliable monitoring of NO2 columns on a global scale and on long time scales. This work presents a refined algorithm for the retrieval of NO2 columns from the satellite instrument Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2), which shows a clear improvement comparing to the previous algorithm.
Frederik Tack, Alexis Merlaud, Andreas C. Meier, Tim Vlemmix, Thomas Ruhtz, Marian-Daniel Iordache, Xinrui Ge, Len van der Wal, Dirk Schuettemeyer, Magdalena Ardelean, Andreea Calcan, Daniel Constantin, Anja Schönhardt, Koen Meuleman, Andreas Richter, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 211–236,Short summary
We present an intercomparison study of four airborne imaging DOAS instruments, dedicated to the retrieval and high-resolution mapping of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical column densities (VCDs). The AROMAPEX campaign took place in Berlin, Germany, in April 2016 with the primary objectives (1) to test and intercompare the performance of experimental airborne imagers and (2) to prepare the validation and calibration campaigns for the Sentinel-5 Precursor/TROPOMI mission.
Tim Bösch, Vladimir Rozanov, Andreas Richter, Enno Peters, Alexei Rozanov, Folkard Wittrock, Alexis Merlaud, Johannes Lampel, Stefan Schmitt, Marijn de Haij, Stijn Berkhout, Bas Henzing, Arnoud Apituley, Mirjam den Hoed, Jan Vonk, Martin Tiefengraber, Moritz Müller, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6833–6859,Short summary
A new MAX-DOAS profiling algorithm for aerosols and trace gases was developed. The performance of this novel algorithm was tested with the help of synthetic data and measurements from the CINDI-2 campaign in Cabauw, the Netherlands, in 2016.
K. Folkert Boersma, Henk J. Eskes, Andreas Richter, Isabelle De Smedt, Alba Lorente, Steffen Beirle, Jos H. G. M. van Geffen, Marina Zara, Enno Peters, Michel Van Roozendael, Thomas Wagner, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Ronald J. van der A, Joanne Nightingale, Anne De Rudder, Hitoshi Irie, Gaia Pinardi, Jean-Christopher Lambert, and Steven C. Compernolle
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6651–6678,Short summary
This paper describes a new, improved data record of 22+ years of coherent nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution measurements from different satellite instruments. Our work helps to ensure that climate data are of sufficient quality to draw reliable conclusions and shape decisions. It shows how dedicated intercomparisons of retrieval sub-steps have led to improved NO2 measurements from the GOME, SCIAMACHY, GOME-2(A), and OMI sensors, and how quality assurance of the new data product is achieved.
Vladimir S. Kostsov, Anke Kniffka, and Dmitry V. Ionov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5439–5460,Short summary
Clouds are a very important component of the climate system and of the hydrological cycle in the Arctic and sub-Arctic. A joint analysis of the cloud parameters obtained remotely from satellite and ground-based observations near St Petersburg, Russia, has been made. Our study has revealed considerable differences between the cloud properties over land and over water areas in the region under investigation.
Anne Boynard, Daniel Hurtmans, Katerina Garane, Florence Goutail, Juliette Hadji-Lazaro, Maria Elissavet Koukouli, Catherine Wespes, Corinne Vigouroux, Arno Keppens, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Andrea Pazmino, Dimitris Balis, Diego Loyola, Pieter Valks, Ralf Sussmann, Dan Smale, Pierre-François Coheur, and Cathy Clerbaux
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5125–5152,Short summary
In this paper, we perform a comprehensive validation of the IASI/Metop ozone data using independent observations (satellite, ground-based and ozonesonde). The quality of the IASI total and tropospheric ozone columns in terms of bias and long-term stability is generally good. Compared with ozonesonde data, IASI overestimates (underestimates) the ozone abundance in the stratosphere (troposphere). A negative drift in tropospheric ozone is observed, which is not well understood at this point.
Alba Lorente, K. Folkert Boersma, Piet Stammes, L. Gijsbert Tilstra, Andreas Richter, Huan Yu, Said Kharbouche, and Jan-Peter Muller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4509–4529,Short summary
Light reflected by Earth’s surface is different in each direction: it appears brighter or darker in certain viewing directions. Currently this effect is not accounted for in satellite retrievals; thus surface reflectance climatologies and cloud fractions show an east-west bias across orbits (GOME2,OMI). The effect for NO2 measurements in partly cloudy scenes is substantial. We recommend that this effect in UV/Vis sensors coherently accounted for, and will be especially beneficial for TROPOMI.
Marina Zara, K. Folkert Boersma, Isabelle De Smedt, Andreas Richter, Enno Peters, Jos H. G. M. van Geffen, Steffen Beirle, Thomas Wagner, Michel Van Roozendael, Sergey Marchenko, Lok N. Lamsal, and Henk J. Eskes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4033–4058,Short summary
Nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde satellite data are used for air quality and climate studies. We quantify and characterise slant column uncertainties from different research groups. Our evaluation is motivated by recently improved techniques and by a desire to provide fully traceable uncertainty budget for climate records generated within the QA4ECV project. The improved slant columns are in agreement but with substantial differences in the reported uncertainties between groups and instruments.
Andrea Pazmiño, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Alain Hauchecorne, Chantal Claud, Sergey Khaykin, Florence Goutail, Elian Wolfram, Jacobo Salvador, and Eduardo Quel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7557–7572,Short summary
The article mentions several symptoms of recovery. Multilinear regression analysis provides significant increase since 2001 of total ozone in Sept and during the period of maximum ozone destruction (15 Sept–15 Oct). There is significant decrease of ozone mass deficit for the same periods, decrease of relative area of total ozone values lower than 175 DU within the vortex (1 Sept–15 Oct since 2010) and a delay in the occurrence of ozone levels below 125 DU since 2005 for the 1 Sept–15 Oct period.
Lisa K. Behrens, Andreas Hilboll, Andreas Richter, Enno Peters, Henk Eskes, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2769–2795,Short summary
We developed a novel NO2 DOAS retrieval for the GOME-2A instrument in the UV spectral range, which is compared with a NO2 retrieval in the visible and model values. Regions representative for both anthropogenic and biomass burning NO2 pollution are investigated. Anthropogenic air pollution is mostly located in the boundary layer close to the surface. In contrast, biomass burning NO2 is often uplifted into elevated layers.
Isabelle De Smedt, Nicolas Theys, Huan Yu, Thomas Danckaert, Christophe Lerot, Steven Compernolle, Michel Van Roozendael, Andreas Richter, Andreas Hilboll, Enno Peters, Mattia Pedergnana, Diego Loyola, Steffen Beirle, Thomas Wagner, Henk Eskes, Jos van Geffen, Klaas Folkert Boersma, and Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2395–2426,Short summary
This paper introduces the formaldehyde (HCHO) tropospheric vertical column retrieval algorithm implemented in the TROPOMI/Sentinel-5 Precursor operational processor, and comprehensively describes its various retrieval steps. Furthermore, algorithmic improvements developed in the framework of the EU FP7-project QA4ECV are described for future updates of the processor. Detailed error estimates are discussed in the light of Copernicus user requirements and needs for validation are highlighted.
Abdoulwahab Mohamed Toihir, Thierry Portafaix, Venkataraman Sivakumar, Hassan Bencherif, Andréa Pazmiño, and Nelson Bègue
Ann. Geophys., 36, 381–404,
Katerina Garane, Christophe Lerot, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Tijl Verhoelst, Maria Elissavet Koukouli, Irene Zyrichidou, Dimitris S. Balis, Thomas Danckaert, Florence Goutail, Jose Granville, Daan Hubert, Arno Keppens, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Diego Loyola, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Michel Van Roozendael, and Claus Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1385–1402,Short summary
The GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV) is a level-3 data record, which combines individual sensor products into one single cohesive record covering the 22-year period from 1995 to 2017, generated in the frame of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Phase II. The exceptional quality of the level-3 GTO-ECV v3 TOC record temporal stability satisfies well the requirements for the total ozone measurement decadal stability of between 1 and 3 %.
Linlu Mei, Vladimir Rozanov, Marco Vountas, John P. Burrows, and Andreas Richter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2511–2523,
Kévin Lamy, Thierry Portafaix, Colette Brogniez, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Hassan Bencherif, Béatrice Morel, Andrea Pazmino, Jean Marc Metzger, Frédérique Auriol, Christine Deroo, Valentin Duflot, Philippe Goloub, and Charles N. Long
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 227–246,Short summary
This work focuses on solar radiation in the tropics, more specifically on ultraviolet radiation. From ground-based and satellite observations of the chemical state of the atmosphere, we were able to model the ultraviolet measurements measured in the southern tropics with a very small error. This is a first step to modelling and predicting future ultraviolet levels in the tropics from chemistry-climate projections.
Yana A. Virolainen, Yury M. Timofeyev, Vladimir S. Kostsov, Dmitry V. Ionov, Vladislav V. Kalinnikov, Maria V. Makarova, Anatoly V. Poberovsky, Nikita A. Zaitsev, Hamud H. Imhasin, Alexander V. Polyakov, Matthias Schneider, Frank Hase, Sabine Barthlott, and Thomas Blumenstock
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4521–4536,Short summary
Water vapour is one of the most important gases in the Earth’s atmosphere and plays a unique role in climate and weather forming. Cross-comparison of different systems for monitoring the atmospheric integrated water vapour (IWV) measurements is an essential part of their testing and validation protocol. We compare coincident measurements of IWV by different techniques over Saint Petersburg (Russia), assess their quality in various atmospheric conditions, and give recommendation for data users.
Yang Wang, Steffen Beirle, Francois Hendrick, Andreas Hilboll, Junli Jin, Aleksandra A. Kyuberis, Johannes Lampel, Ang Li, Yuhan Luo, Lorenzo Lodi, Jianzhong Ma, Monica Navarro, Ivan Ortega, Enno Peters, Oleg L. Polyansky, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, Olga Puentedura, Michel Van Roozendael, André Seyler, Jonathan Tennyson, Rainer Volkamer, Pinhua Xie, Nikolai F. Zobov, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3719–3742,Short summary
Slant column densities of nitrous acid (HONO) derived from different MAX-DOAS instruments and retrieval software are systematically compared for the first time during the Multi Axis DOAS – Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) campaign held at MPIC in Mainz, Germany, from June to October 2013. Through the inter-comparisons and sensitivity studies we quantified the uncertainties in the DOAS fits of HONO from different sources and concluded a recommended setting.
André Seyler, Folkard Wittrock, Lisa Kattner, Barbara Mathieu-Üffing, Enno Peters, Andreas Richter, Stefan Schmolke, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10997–11023,Short summary
Shipping accounts for a significant part of the emissions from the transportation sector. We have analyzed 3 years of MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2 and SO2 from a small island in the German Bight, showing that despite the vicinity to the shipping lane, the contribution of shipping sources to air pollution is only about 40 %. The implementation of stricter fuel sulfur limits led to a significant reduction in SO2-to-NO2 ratios in shipping emissions and ambient SO2 levels at the German coast.
Andreas Carlos Meier, Anja Schönhardt, Tim Bösch, Andreas Richter, André Seyler, Thomas Ruhtz, Daniel-Eduard Constantin, Reza Shaiganfar, Thomas Wagner, Alexis Merlaud, Michel Van Roozendael, Livio Belegante, Doina Nicolae, Lucian Georgescu, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1831–1857,Short summary
We present airborne remote sensing measurements of NO2 in the urban area of Bucharest. NO2 is a harmful pollutant, which is emitted in combustion processes. The measurements presented here enable the creation of maps, showing the horizontal NO2 distribution across the whole city within a relatively short time window of 1.5 h. These data provide new insight into urban pollution levels and their spatial distribution.
Anja Schönhardt, Andreas Richter, Nicolas Theys, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4857–4870,Short summary
Iodine monoxide, IO, is observed in satellite measurements following the eruption of the Kasatochi volcano, Alaska, in August 2008. Large IO columns are detected by SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and by GOME-2 on MetOp-A for several days. IO amounts are approximately 1 order of magnitude smaller than those of BrO. Details in the spatial distributions differ between IO, BrO and sulfur dioxide, SO2. The total mass of IO in the volcanic plume is determined to be on the order of 10 Mg.
Christopher E. Sioris, Landon A. Rieger, Nicholas D. Lloyd, Adam E. Bourassa, Chris Z. Roth, Douglas A. Degenstein, Claude Camy-Peyret, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Gwenaël Berthet, Valéry Catoire, Florence Goutail, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, and Chris A. McLinden
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1155–1168,Short summary
A new OSIRIS NO2 retrieval algorithm is described and validated using > 40 balloon-based profile measurements. The validation results indicate a slight improvement relative to the existing operational algorithm in terms of the bias versus the balloon data, particularly in the lower stratosphere. The implication is that this new algorithm should replace the operational one. The motivation was to combine spectral fitting and the SaskTRAN radiative transfer model to achieve an improved product.
Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, André Seyler, Andreas Richter, Folkard Wittrock, Tim Bösch, Michel Van Roozendael, François Hendrick, Theano Drosoglou, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Yugo Kanaya, Xiaoyi Zhao, Kimberly Strong, Johannes Lampel, Rainer Volkamer, Theodore Koenig, Ivan Ortega, Olga Puentedura, Mónica Navarro-Comas, Laura Gómez, Margarita Yela González, Ankie Piters, Julia Remmers, Yang Wang, Thomas Wagner, Shanshan Wang, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, David García-Nieto, Carlos A. Cuevas, Nuria Benavent, Richard Querel, Paul Johnston, Oleg Postylyakov, Alexander Borovski, Alexander Elokhov, Ilya Bruchkouski, Haoran Liu, Cheng Liu, Qianqian Hong, Claudia Rivera, Michel Grutter, Wolfgang Stremme, M. Fahim Khokhar, Junaid Khayyam, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 955–978,Short summary
This work is about harmonization of differential optical absorption spectroscopy retrieval codes, which is a remote sensing technique widely used to derive atmospheric trace gas amounts. The study is based on ground-based measurements performed during the Multi-Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) in Mainz, Germany, in summer 2013. In total, 17 international groups working in the field of the DOAS technique participated in this study.
Andreas Hilboll, Andreas Richter, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
We investigate the temporal evolution of the important tropospheric air pollutant nitrogen dioxide (NO2) since the early 2000s, and correlate NO2 abundances with indicators of economic development. Until 2012, NO2 pollution and economic growth are strongly correlated, with annual increases of up to 4.4 %. Since then, tropospheric NO2 pollution has stabilized or is even declining, probably as a result of a slow-down in Indian economic growth combined with the implementation of cleaner technology.
Alba Lorente, K. Folkert Boersma, Huan Yu, Steffen Dörner, Andreas Hilboll, Andreas Richter, Mengyao Liu, Lok N. Lamsal, Michael Barkley, Isabelle De Smedt, Michel Van Roozendael, Yang Wang, Thomas Wagner, Steffen Beirle, Jin-Tai Lin, Nickolay Krotkov, Piet Stammes, Ping Wang, Henk J. Eskes, and Maarten Krol
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 759–782,Short summary
Choices and assumptions made to represent the state of the atmosphere introduce an uncertainty of 42 % in the air mass factor calculation in trace gas satellite retrievals in polluted regions. The AMF strongly depends on the choice of a priori trace gas profile, surface albedo data set and the correction method to account for clouds and aerosols. We call for well-designed validation exercises focusing on situations when AMF structural uncertainty has the highest impact on satellite retrievals.
Ruixiong Zhang, Yuhang Wang, Qiusheng He, Laiguo Chen, Yuzhong Zhang, Hang Qu, Charles Smeltzer, Jianfeng Li, Leonardo M. A. Alvarado, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Andreas Richter, Folkard Wittrock, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3083–3095,Short summary
We use short-lived reactive aromatics as proxies to diagnose transport of pollutants to Tibet. In situ observations of short-lived reactive aromatics across the Tibetan Plateau are analyzed using a regional chemistry and transport model. Our results suggest that the cut-off low system is a major pathway for long-range transport of pollutants such as black carbon. The modeling analysis reveals that even the state-of-the-science reanalysis cannot simulate this cut-off system accurately.
Sergey M. Khaykin, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Emmanuel D. Riviere, Gerhard Held, Felix Ploeger, Melanie Ghysels, Nadir Amarouche, Jean-Paul Vernier, Frank G. Wienhold, and Dmitry Ionov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12273–12286,Short summary
The study makes use of a series of field experiments conducted in Brazil and aimed at studying the processes controlling the composition of the tropical lower stratosphere. High-resolution balloon-borne measurements together with global-coverage satellite observations and weather radar acquisitions are analysed using trajectory and transport modelling in order to evaluate the contribution of different transport pathways to the stratospheric water budget.
Marsailidh M. Twigg, Evgenia Ilyinskaya, Sonya Beccaceci, David C. Green, Matthew R. Jones, Ben Langford, Sarah R. Leeson, Justin J. N. Lingard, Gloria M. Pereira, Heather Carter, Jan Poskitt, Andreas Richter, Stuart Ritchie, Ivan Simmons, Ron I. Smith, Y. Sim Tang, Netty Van Dijk, Keith Vincent, Eiko Nemitz, Massimo Vieno, and Christine F. Braban
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11415–11431,Short summary
This study integrates high and low resolution temporal measurements to assess the impact of the Holuhraun effusive eruption in 2014 across the UK. Measurements, modelling and satellite analysis provides details on the transport and chemistry of both gases and particulates during this unique event. The results of the study can be used verify existing atmospheric chemistry models of volcano plumes in order to carry improved risk assessments for future volcanic eruptions.
Anne Boynard, Daniel Hurtmans, Mariliza E. Koukouli, Florence Goutail, Jérôme Bureau, Sarah Safieddine, Christophe Lerot, Juliette Hadji-Lazaro, Catherine Wespes, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Andrea Pazmino, Irene Zyrichidou, Dimitris Balis, Alain Barbe, Semen N. Mikhailenko, Diego Loyola, Pieter Valks, Michel Van Roozendael, Pierre-François Coheur, and Cathy Clerbaux
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4327–4353,Short summary
Seven years of O3 observations retrieved from IASI/MetOp satellite instruments are validated with independent data (UV satellite and ground-based data along with ozonesonde profiles). Overall IASI overestimates the total ozone columns (TOC) by 2–7 % depending on the latitude. The assessment of an updated version of the IASI O3 retrieval sofware shows a correction of ~ 4 % in the IASI TOC product, bringing the overall global bias with UV ground-based and satellite data to ~ 1–2 % on average.
Vincent Huijnen, Johannes Flemming, Simon Chabrillat, Quentin Errera, Yves Christophe, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Andreas Richter, and Henk Eskes
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3071–3091,Short summary
We present a model description and benchmark evaluation of an extension of the tropospheric chemistry module in the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) with stratospheric chemistry. The stratospheric chemistry originates from the one used in the Belgian Assimilation System for Chemical ObsErvations (BASCOE), and is here combined with the modified CB05 chemistry module for the troposphere as currently used operationally in the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS).
Mélanie Ghysels, Emmanuel D. Riviere, Sergey Khaykin, Clara Stoeffler, Nadir Amarouche, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Gerhard Held, and Georges Durry
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1207–1219,Short summary
Water vapor in the Earth stratosphere has a significant impact on the climate and the radiative balance. Achieving high-accuracy measurements of humidity in the stratosphere is still far from routine. In this paper, we demonstrate one of the best in situ balloon-borne measurement comparisons from two highly compact spectrometers: Pico-SDLA H2O and FLASH-B.
Stefan F. Schreier, Andreas Richter, Folkard Wittrock, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2803–2817,Short summary
Mixing ratios of NO2 and HCHO in the free troposphere are obtained from MAX-DOAS measurements at two mountain stations at midlatitudes and in the tropics using a modified geometrical approach. The method is applied in the UV wavelength range and, thus, allows the detection of HCHO mixing ratios, in addition to NO2. We find that mixing ratios of both species are increased in the tropical free troposphere due to biomass burning.
A.-M. Blechschmidt, A. Richter, J. P. Burrows, L. Kaleschke, K. Strong, N. Theys, M. Weber, X. Zhao, and A. Zien
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1773–1788,Short summary
A comprehensive case study of a comma-shaped bromine monoxide plume in the Arctic, which was transported by a polar cyclone and was observed by the GOME-2 satellite sensor over several days, is presented. By making combined use of different kinds of satellite data and numerical models, we demonstrate the important role of the frontal weather system in favouring the bromine activation cycle and blowing snow production, which may have acted as a bromine source during the bromine explosion event.
D. Toledo, P. Rannou, J.-P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, and T. Foujols
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 455–467,
A. Wagner, A.-M. Blechschmidt, I. Bouarar, E.-G. Brunke, C. Clerbaux, M. Cupeiro, P. Cristofanelli, H. Eskes, J. Flemming, H. Flentje, M. George, S. Gilge, A. Hilboll, A. Inness, J. Kapsomenakis, A. Richter, L. Ries, W. Spangl, O. Stein, R. Weller, and C. Zerefos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 14005–14030,Short summary
The Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate project (MACC) operationally produces global analyses and forecasts of reactive gases and aerosol fields. We have investigated the ability of the model to simulate concentrations of reactive gases (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone) between 2009 and 2012. The model reproduced reactive gas concentrations with consistent quality, however, with a seasonally dependent bias compared to surface and satellite observations.
A. Schönhardt, P. Altube, K. Gerilowski, S. Krautwurst, J. Hartmann, A. C. Meier, A. Richter, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5113–5131,Short summary
The study reports on the application of an aircraft-based instrument (AirMAP) measuring atmospheric nitrogen dioxide. Two-dimensional maps are produced at a spatial resolution of 28m x 30m and with wide spatial coverage. The instrument characteristics are explained and the detailed mapping of a power plant emission plume is demonstrated. Small-scale enhanced amounts of nitrogen dioxide from traffic are observed above a motorway.
T. Verhoelst, J. Granville, F. Hendrick, U. Köhler, C. Lerot, J.-P. Pommereau, A. Redondas, M. Van Roozendael, and J.-C. Lambert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5039–5062,Short summary
Comparisons between satellite and ground-based measurements of the atmosphere are inevitably affected by natural variability due to mismatches in spatial and temporal co-location. These additional terms in the comparison error budget are quantified here for total ozone column comparisons using an Observing System Simulation Experiment. Even when using tight co-location criteria, atmospheric variability is found to impact the comparisons significantly.
H. Eskes, V. Huijnen, A. Arola, A. Benedictow, A.-M. Blechschmidt, E. Botek, O. Boucher, I. Bouarar, S. Chabrillat, E. Cuevas, R. Engelen, H. Flentje, A. Gaudel, J. Griesfeller, L. Jones, J. Kapsomenakis, E. Katragkou, S. Kinne, B. Langerock, M. Razinger, A. Richter, M. Schultz, M. Schulz, N. Sudarchikova, V. Thouret, M. Vrekoussis, A. Wagner, and C. Zerefos
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3523–3543,Short summary
The MACC project is preparing the operational atmosphere service of the European Copernicus Programme, and uses data assimilation to combine atmospheric models with available observations. Our paper provides an overview of the aerosol and trace gas validation activity of MACC. Topics are the validation requirements, the measurement data, the assimilation systems, the upgrade procedure, operational aspects and the scoring methods. A summary is provided of recent results, including special events.
L. Kattner, B. Mathieu-Üffing, J. P. Burrows, A. Richter, S. Schmolke, A. Seyler, and F. Wittrock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10087–10092,Short summary
On 1 January 2015, the International Maritime Organisation tightened the regulations for sulfur content of shipping fuels in Sulfur Emission Control Areas. Here we present data from a station near Hamburg harbour in the North Sea SECA, which uses in situ measurements of atmospheric trace gases to deduce the sulphur fuel content of passing ships. We compare data from 2014 before the regulation change and from January 2015 and show how this method can be used for compliance monitoring.
F. Tack, F. Hendrick, F. Goutail, C. Fayt, A. Merlaud, G. Pinardi, C. Hermans, J.-P. Pommereau, and M. Van Roozendael
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2417–2435,Short summary
An algorithm is presented for retrieving tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities from ground-based zenith-sky (ZS) measurements of scattered sunlight. The different steps are fully characterized and recommendations are given for each of them. The retrieval algorithm is applied on a 2-month ZS data set acquired during the CINDI campaign and on a 2-year data set acquired at the OHP NDACC station. The error budget assessment indicates that the overall error on the column values is less than 28%.
A. Inness, A.-M. Blechschmidt, I. Bouarar, S. Chabrillat, M. Crepulja, R. J. Engelen, H. Eskes, J. Flemming, A. Gaudel, F. Hendrick, V. Huijnen, L. Jones, J. Kapsomenakis, E. Katragkou, A. Keppens, B. Langerock, M. de Mazière, D. Melas, M. Parrington, V. H. Peuch, M. Razinger, A. Richter, M. G. Schultz, M. Suttie, V. Thouret, M. Vrekoussis, A. Wagner, and C. Zerefos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5275–5303,Short summary
The paper presents results from data assimilation studies with the new Composition-IFS model developed in the MACC project. This system was used in MACC to produce daily analyses and 5-day forecasts of atmospheric composition and is now run daily in the EU’s Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service. The paper looks at the quality of the CO, O3 and NO2 analysis fields obtained with this system, comparing them against observations, a control run and an older version of the model.
J. Flemming, V. Huijnen, J. Arteta, P. Bechtold, A. Beljaars, A.-M. Blechschmidt, M. Diamantakis, R. J. Engelen, A. Gaudel, A. Inness, L. Jones, B. Josse, E. Katragkou, V. Marecal, V.-H. Peuch, A. Richter, M. G. Schultz, O. Stein, and A. Tsikerdekis
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 975–1003,Short summary
We describe modules for atmospheric chemistry, wet and dry deposition and lightning NO production, which have been newly introduced in ECMWF's weather forecasting model. With that model, we want to forecast global air pollution as part of the European Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service. We show that the new model results compare as well or better with in situ and satellite observations of ozone, CO, NO2, SO2 and formaldehyde as the previous model.
E. Peters, F. Wittrock, A. Richter, L. M. A. Alvarado, V. V. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4203–4221,Short summary
In this study, a correction spectrum accounting for insufficiencies in commonly used liquid water absorption spectra in DOAS applications is retrieved from ship-borne field measurements. The correction spectrum compensates at the same time for broadband parts of vibrational Raman scattering. With this, an entire compensation of liquid water spectral effects in DOAS applications was achieved.
L. M. A. Alvarado, A. Richter, M. Vrekoussis, F. Wittrock, A. Hilboll, S. F. Schreier, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4133–4150,Short summary
An improved glyoxal retrieval for OMI measurements using the DOAS method has been developed. The retrieval is based on sensitivity tests for the selection of most appropriate retrieval parameters. Also, corrections for reduction of interferences with other species have been applied. In addition, the link between pyrogenic emissions and glyoxal over regions with large wildfires have been investigated, and showed that fires are an important source of glyoxal.
K. Noguchi, A. Richter, V. Rozanov, A. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, H. Irie, and K. Kita
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3497–3508,
A. W. Zien, A. Richter, A. Hilboll, A.-M. Blechschmidt, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7367–7396,
F. Carminati, P. Ricaud, J.-P. Pommereau, E. Rivière, S. Khaykin, J.-L. Attié, and J. Warner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6195–6211,
J. W. Halfacre, T. N. Knepp, P. B. Shepson, C. R. Thompson, K. A. Pratt, B. Li, P. K. Peterson, S. J. Walsh, W. R. Simpson, P. A. Matrai, J. W. Bottenheim, S. Netcheva, D. K. Perovich, and A. Richter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4875–4894,
E. Eckert, T. von Clarmann, M. Kiefer, G. P. Stiller, S. Lossow, N. Glatthor, D. A. Degenstein, L. Froidevaux, S. Godin-Beekmann, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, M. Pastel, W. Steinbrecht, D. P. J. Swart, K. A. Walker, and P. F. Bernath
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2571–2589,
S. F. Schreier, A. Richter, J. W. Kaiser, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2447–2466,
O. Bock, P. Bosser, T. Bourcy, L. David, F. Goutail, C. Hoareau, P. Keckhut, D. Legain, A. Pazmino, J. Pelon, K. Pipis, G. Poujol, A. Sarkissian, C. Thom, G. Tournois, and D. Tzanos
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2777–2802,
P. J. Nair, S. Godin-Beekmann, J. Kuttippurath, G. Ancellet, F. Goutail, A. Pazmiño, L. Froidevaux, J. M. Zawodny, R. D. Evans, H. J. Wang, J. Anderson, and M. Pastel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10373–10384,
S. M. Khaykin, J.-P. Pommereau, and A. Hauchecorne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6391–6402,
S. Studer, K. Hocke, M. Pastel, S. Godin-Beekmann, and N. Kämpfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, F. Lefèvre, A. Pazmino, C. Adams, V. Dorokhov, P. Eriksen, R. Kivi, K. Stebel, X. Zhao, and M. van Roozendael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5299–5308,
S. Alkasm, A. Sarkissian, P. Keckhut, A. Pazmino, F. Goutail, M. Pinharanda, and S. Noël
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
R. A. Stachnik, L. Millán, R. Jarnot, R. Monroe, C. McLinden, S. Kühl, J. Puķīte, M. Shiotani, M. Suzuki, Y. Kasai, F. Goutail, J. P. Pommereau, M. Dorf, and K. Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3307–3319,
V. Dorokhov, N. Tsvetkova, V. Yushkov, H. Nakajima, G. Ivlev, A. Makshtas, N. Tereb, F. Goutail, A. Pazmino, and J.-P. Pommereau
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
G. Pinardi, M. Van Roozendael, N. Abuhassan, C. Adams, A. Cede, K. Clémer, C. Fayt, U. Frieß, M. Gil, J. Herman, C. Hermans, F. Hendrick, H. Irie, A. Merlaud, M. Navarro Comas, E. Peters, A. J. M. Piters, O. Puentedura, A. Richter, A. Schönhardt, R. Shaiganfar, E. Spinei, K. Strong, H. Takashima, M. Vrekoussis, T. Wagner, F. Wittrock, and S. Yilmaz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 167–185,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Validation and IntercomparisonsValidation of a new cavity ring-down spectrometer for measuring tropospheric gaseous hydrogen chlorideField Testing Two Flux Footprint ModelsComparison of formaldehyde measurements by Hantzsch, CRDS and DOAS in the SAPHIR chamberA field intercomparison of three passive air samplers for gaseous mercury in ambient airBeef cattle methane emissions measured with tracer-ratio and inverse dispersion modelling techniquesMethane emissions from an oil sands tailings pond: a quantitative comparison of fluxes derived by different methodsPerformance of open-path GasFinder3 devices for CH4 concentration measurements close to ambient levelsWater vapor density and turbulent fluxes from three generations of infrared gas analyzersQuantifying fugitive gas emissions from an oil sands tailings pond with open-path Fourier transform infrared measurementsRobust statistical calibration and characterization of portable low-cost air quality monitoring sensors to quantify real-time O3 and NO2 concentrations in diverse environmentsA miniature Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) for real-driving monitoring of motorcyclesIn situ measurement of CO2 and CH4 from aircraft over northeast China and comparison with OCO-2 dataMobile-platform measurement of air pollutant concentrations in California: performance assessment, statistical methods for evaluating spatial variations, and spatial representativenessContinuous methane concentration measurements at the Greenland ice sheet–atmosphere interface using a low-cost, low-power metal oxide sensor systemThe development of the Atmospheric Measurements by Ultra-Light Spectrometer (AMULSE) greenhouse gas profiling system and application for satellite retrieval validationAtmospheric observations of the water vapour continuum in the near-infrared windows between 2500 and 6600 cm−1Intercomparison study of atmospheric 222Rn and 222Rn progeny monitorsSources of error in open-path FTIR measurements of N2O and CO2 emitted from agricultural fieldsConstraining the accuracy of flux estimates using OTM 33AEvaluating the measurement interference of wet rotating-denuder–ion chromatography in measuring atmospheric HONO in a highly polluted areaIntercomparison of nitrous acid (HONO) measurement techniques in a megacity (Beijing)Validity and limitations of simple reaction kinetics to calculate concentrations of organic compounds from ion counts in PTR-MSRecent advances in measurement techniques for atmospheric carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide observationsTrue eddy accumulation trace gas flux measurements: proof of conceptSimultaneous detection of C2H6, CH4, and δ13C-CH4 using optical feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region: towards application for dissolved gas measurementsAn improved low-power measurement of ambient NO2 and O3 combining electrochemical sensor clusters and machine learningComparison of slant open-path flux gradient and static closed chamber techniques to measure soil N2O emissionsField measurements of methylglyoxal using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry and comparison to the DNPH–HPLC–UV methodHow well can global chemistry models calculate the reactivity of short-lived greenhouse gases in the remote troposphere, knowing the chemical compositionEstimation of nocturnal CO2 and N2O soil emissions from changes in surface boundary layer mass storageIntra-urban spatial variability of surface ozone in Riverside, CA: viability and validation of low-cost sensorsField calibration of electrochemical NO2 sensors in a citizen science contextCalibration and field testing of cavity ring-down laser spectrometers measuring CH4, CO2, and δ13CH4 deployed on towers in the Marcellus Shale regionCalibration and assessment of electrochemical air quality sensors by co-location with regulatory-grade instrumentsComparison of VOC measurements made by PTR-MS, adsorbent tubes–GC-FID-MS and DNPH derivatization–HPLC during the Sydney Particle Study, 2012: a contribution to the assessment of uncertainty in routine atmospheric VOC measurementsMeasurement of interferences associated with the detection of the hydroperoxy radical in the atmosphere using laser-induced fluorescenceMeasurements of a potential interference with laser-induced fluorescence measurements of ambient OH from the ozonolysis of biogenic alkenesStatistical atmospheric inversion of local gas emissions by coupling the tracer release technique and local-scale transport modelling: a test case with controlled methane emissionsComparison of OH reactivity measurements in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIRUse of electrochemical sensors for measurement of air pollution: correcting interference response and validating measurementsObservations of VOC emissions and photochemical products over US oil- and gas-producing regions using high-resolution H3O+ CIMS (PTR-ToF-MS)Simultaneous multicopter-based air sampling and sensing of meteorological variablesEvaluation and environmental correction of ambient CO2 measurements from a low-cost NDIR sensorA closed-chamber method to measure greenhouse gas fluxes from dry aquatic sedimentsMethods to homogenize electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde measurements across changes in sensing solution concentration or ozonesonde manufacturerComparison of optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography for ground-based and airborne measurements of atmospheric CO concentrationA European-wide 222radon and 222radon progeny comparison studyAn eddy-covariance system with an innovative vortex intake for measuring carbon dioxide and water fluxes of ecosystemsFlux calculation of short turbulent events – comparison of three methodsUsing in situ GC-MS for analysis of C2–C7 volatile organic acids in ambient air of a boreal forest site
Teles C. Furlani, Patrick R. Veres, Kathryn E. R. Dawe, J. Andrew Neuman, Steven S. Brown, Trevor C. VandenBoer, and Cora J. Young
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5859–5871,Short summary
This study characterized and validated a commercial spectroscopic instrument for the measurement of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in the atmosphere. Near the Earth’s surface, HCl acts as the dominant reservoir for other chlorine-containing reactive chemicals that play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. The properties of HCl make it challenging to measure. This instrument can overcome many of these challenges, enabling reliable HCl measurements.
Trevor W. Coates, Monzurul Alam, Thomas K. Flesch, and Guillermo Hernandez-Ramirez
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
A field study investigated the accuracy of two footprint models for calculating surface emission rates from eddy covariance flux measurements. Emissions from a 10 × 10 m synthetic source were estimated with a Kormann-Meixner analytical model and a more sophisticated Lagrangian stochastic model, based on a downwind measured flux. Each model calculated average emission rates within 10 % of the actual rate. Footprint models are critically important for interpreting eddy covariance measurements.
Marvin Glowania, Franz Rohrer, Hans-Peter Dorn, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4239–4253,Short summary
Three instruments that use different techniques to measure gaseous formaldehyde concentrations were compared in experiments in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR at Forschungszentrum Jülich. The results demonstrated the need to correct the baseline in measurements by instruments that use the Hantzsch reaction or make use of cavity ring-down spectroscopy. After applying corrections, all three methods gave accurate and precise measurements within their specifications.
Attilio Naccarato, Antonella Tassone, Maria Martino, Sacha Moretti, Antonella Macagnano, Emiliano Zampetti, Paolo Papa, Joshua Avossa, Nicola Pirrone, Michelle Nerentorp, John Munthe, Ingvar Wängberg, Geoff W. Stupple, Carl P. J. Mitchell, Adam R. Martin, Alexandra Steffen, Diana Babi, Eric M. Prestbo, Francesca Sprovieri, and Frank Wania
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3657–3672,Short summary
Mercury monitoring in support of the Minamata Convention requires effective and reliable analytical tools. Passive sampling is a promising approach for creating a sustainable long-term network for atmospheric mercury with improved spatial resolution and global coverage. In this study the analytical performance of three passive air samplers (CNR-PAS, IVL-PAS, and MerPAS) was assessed over extended deployment periods and the accuracy of concentrations was judged by comparison with active sampling.
Mei Bai, José I. Velazco, Trevor W. Coates, Frances A. Phillips, Thomas K. Flesch, Julian Hill, David G. Mayer, Nigel W. Tomkins, Roger S. Hegarty, and Deli Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3469–3479,Short summary
The development and validation of management practices to mitigate methane (CH4) emissions from livestock require accurate emission measurements. We compared the inverse dispersion modelling (IDM) and tracer-ratio techniques to measure CH4 emissions from cattle. Both measurements agreed well but were higher than IPCC estimates. We suggest that the IDM approach can provide an accurate method of estimating cattle emissions, and IPCC estimates may have larger uncertainties.
Yuan You, Ralf M. Staebler, Samar G. Moussa, James Beck, and Richard L. Mittermeier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1879–1892,Short summary
Tailings ponds in the Alberta oil sands can be significant sources of methane, an important greenhouse gas. This paper describes a 1-month study conducted in 2017 to measure methane emissions from a pond using a variety of micrometeorological flux methods and demonstrates some advantages of these methods over flux chambers.
Christoph Häni, Marcel Bühler, Albrecht Neftel, Christof Ammann, and Thomas Kupper
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1733–1741,
Seth Kutikoff, Xiaomao Lin, Steven R. Evett, Prasanna Gowda, David Brauer, Jerry Moorhead, Gary Marek, Paul Colaizzi, Robert Aiken, Liukang Xu, and Clenton Owensby
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1253–1266,Short summary
Fast-response infrared gas sensors have been used over 3 decades for long-term monitoring of water vapor fluxes. As optically improved infrared gas sensors are newly employed, we evaluated the performance of water vapor density and water vapor flux from three generations of infrared gas sensors in Bushland, Texas, USA. From our experiments, fluxes from the old sensors were best representative of evapotranspiration based on a world-class lysimeter reference measurement.
Yuan You, Samar G. Moussa, Lucas Zhang, Long Fu, James Beck, and Ralf M. Staebler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 945–959,Short summary
Tailings ponds in the Alberta oil sands represent an insufficiently characterized source of fugitive emissions of pollutants to the atmosphere. In this study, a novel approach of using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer along with measurements of atmospheric turbulence is shown to present a practical, non-intrusive method of quantifying emission rates for ammonia, alkanes, and methane. Results from a 1-month field study are presented and discussed.
Ravi Sahu, Ayush Nagal, Kuldeep Kumar Dixit, Harshavardhan Unnibhavi, Srikanth Mantravadi, Srijith Nair, Yogesh Simmhan, Brijesh Mishra, Rajesh Zele, Ronak Sutaria, Vidyanand Motiram Motghare, Purushottam Kar, and Sachchida Nand Tripathi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 37–52,Short summary
A unique feature of our low-cost sensor deployment is a swap-out experiment wherein four of the six sensors were relocated to different sites in the two phases. The swap-out experiment is crucial in investigating the efficacy of calibration models when applied to weather and air quality conditions vastly different from those present during calibration. We developed a novel local calibration algorithm based on metric learning that offers stable and accurate calibration performance.
Michal Vojtisek-Lom, Alessandro A. Zardini, Martin Pechout, Lubos Dittrich, Fausto Forni, François Montigny, Massimo Carriero, Barouch Giechaskiel, and Giorgio Martini
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5827–5843,Short summary
The feasibility of monitoring on-road emissions from small motorcycles with two highly compact portable emissions monitoring systems was evaluated on three motorcycles, with positive results. Mass emissions measured on the road were consistent among repeated runs, with differences between laboratory and on-road tests much larger than those between portable and laboratory systems, which were, on the average, within units of percent over standard test cycles.
Xiaoyu Sun, Minzheng Duan, Yang Gao, Rui Han, Denghui Ji, Wenxing Zhang, Nong Chen, Xiangao Xia, Hailei Liu, and Yanfeng Huo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3595–3607,Short summary
The accurate measurement of greenhouse gases and their vertical distribution in the atmosphere is significant to the study of climate change and satellite remote sensing. Carbon dioxide and methane between 0.6 and 7 km were measured by the aircraft King Air 350ER in Jiansanjiang, northeast China, on 7–11 August 2018. The profiles show strong variation with the altitude and time, so the vertical structure of gases should be taken into account in the current satellite retrieval algorithm.
Paul A. Solomon, Dena Vallano, Melissa Lunden, Brian LaFranchi, Charles L. Blanchard, and Stephanie L. Shaw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3277–3301,Short summary
Analyzing street-level air pollutants (2016–2017), this assessment indicates that mobile measurement is precise and accurate (5 % to 25 % bias) relative to regulatory sites, with higher spatial resolution. Collocated sensor measurements in California showed differences less than 20 %, suggesting that greater differences represent spatial variability. Mobile data confirm regulatory-site spatial representation and that pollutant levels can also be 6 to 8 times higher just blocks apart.
Christian Juncher Jørgensen, Jacob Mønster, Karsten Fuglsang, and Jesper Riis Christiansen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3319–3328,Short summary
Recent discoveries have shown large emissions of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere from meltwater at the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). Low-cost and low-power gas sensor technology offers great potential to supplement CH4 measurements using very expensive reference analyzers under harsh and remote conditions. In this paper we evaluate the in situ performance at the GrIS of a low-cost CH4 sensor to a state-of-the-art analyzer and find very excellent agreement between the two methods.
Lilian Joly, Olivier Coopmann, Vincent Guidard, Thomas Decarpenterie, Nicolas Dumelié, Julien Cousin, Jérémie Burgalat, Nicolas Chauvin, Grégory Albora, Rabih Maamary, Zineb Miftah El Khair, Diane Tzanos, Joël Barrié, Éric Moulin, Patrick Aressy, and Anne Belleudy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3099–3118,Short summary
This article presents an instrument weighing less than 3 kg for accurate and rapid measurement of greenhouse gases between 0 and 30 km altitude using a meteorological balloon. This article shows the interest of these measurements for the validation of simulations of infrared satellite observations.
Jonathan Elsey, Marc D. Coleman, Tom D. Gardiner, Kaah P. Menang, and Keith P. Shine
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2335–2361,Short summary
Water vapour is an important component in trying to understand the flows of energy between the Sun and Earth, since it is opaque to radiation emitted by both the surface and the Sun. In this paper, we study how it absorbs sunlight by way of its
continuum, a property which is poorly understood and with few measurements. Our results indicate that this continuum absorption may be more significant than previously thought, potentially impacting satellite observations and climate studies.
Claudia Grossi, Scott D. Chambers, Olivier Llido, Felix R. Vogel, Victor Kazan, Alessandro Capuana, Sylvester Werczynski, Roger Curcoll, Marc Delmotte, Arturo Vargas, Josep-Anton Morguí, Ingeborg Levin, and Michel Ramonet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2241–2255,Short summary
The sustainable support of radon metrology at the environmental level offers new scientific possibilities for the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the determination of their source terms as well as for the identification of radioactive sources for the assessment of radiation exposure. This study helps to harmonize the techniques commonly used for atmospheric radon and radon progeny activity concentration measurements.
Cheng-Hsien Lin, Richard H. Grant, Albert J. Heber, and Cliff T. Johnston
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2001–2013,Short summary
Gas quantification using the open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (OP-FTIR) is subject to interferences of environmental variables, leading to errors in gas concentration calculations. This study investigated the effects of ambient water vapour content, temperature, path lengths, and wind speed on the quantification of N2O and CO2 concentrations, which can help the OP-FTIR users to avoid these errors and improve the precision and accuracy of the atmospheric gas quantification.
Rachel Edie, Anna M. Robertson, Robert A. Field, Jeffrey Soltis, Dustin A. Snare, Daniel Zimmerle, Clay S. Bell, Timothy L. Vaughn, and Shane M. Murphy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 341–353,Short summary
Ground-based measurements of emissions from oil and natural gas production are important for understanding emission distributions and improving emission inventories. Here, measurement technique Other Test Method 33A (OTM 33A) is validated through several test releases staged at the Methane Emissions Technology Evaluation Center. These tests suggest OTM 33A has no inherent bias and that a group of OTM measurements is within 5 % of the known mean emission rate.
Zheng Xu, Yuliang Liu, Wei Nie, Peng Sun, Xuguang Chi, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6737–6748,Short summary
We evaluated the performance of HONO measurement by a wet-denuder--ion0chromatography system (WD/IC, MARGA). We found significant artificial HONO formed from the reaction of NO2 oxidizing SO2 in the denuder solution. High ambient NH3 would elevate the pH of the denuder solution and promote the overestimation of HONO. A method was established to correct the HONO measurement by WD/IC instruments.
Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, Bin Ouyang, Jun Duan, Wenqian Zhang, Shengrui Tong, Maofa Ge, Ke Tang, Min Qin, Pinhua Xie, Marvin D. Shaw, Alastair C. Lewis, Archit Mehra, Thomas J. Bannan, Stephen D. Worrall, Michael Priestley, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, James Allan, Carl J. Percival, Olalekan A. M. Popoola, Roderic L. Jones, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6449–6463,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is key species for understanding tropospheric chemistry, yet accurate and precise measurements are challenging. Here we report an inter–comparison exercise of a number of instruments that measured HONO in a highly polluted location (Beijing). All instruments agreed on the temporal trends yet displayed divergence in absolute concentrations. The cause of this divergence was unclear, but it may in part be due to spatial variability in instrument location.
Rupert Holzinger, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Martin Breitenlechner, Leigh R. Crilley, Sébastien Dusanter, Marc Gonin, Valerie Gros, Frank N. Keutsch, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Louisa J. Kramer, Jordan E. Krechmer, Baptiste Languille, Nadine Locoge, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Dušan Materić, Sergi Moreno, Eiko Nemitz, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Roland Sarda Esteve, Stéphane Sauvage, Simon Schallhart, Roberto Sommariva, Ralf Tillmann, Sergej Wedel, David R. Worton, Kangming Xu, and Alexander Zaytsev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6193–6208,
Christoph Zellweger, Rainer Steinbrecher, Olivier Laurent, Haeyoung Lee, Sumin Kim, Lukas Emmenegger, Martin Steinbacher, and Brigitte Buchmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5863–5878,Short summary
We analysed results obtained through CO and N2O performance audits conducted within the framework of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) quality management system of the World Meteorology Organization (WMO). The results reveal that current spectroscopic measurement techniques have clear advantages with respect to data quality objectives compared to more traditional methods. Further, they allow for a smooth continuation of historic CO and N2O time series.
Lukas Siebicke and Anas Emad
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4393–4420,Short summary
We present the emerging flux measurement method
true eddy accumulation(TEA), able to quantify the land–atmosphere exchange of a large number of trace gases which are important for air quality and atmospheric composition. Our innovative implementation provides proof of concept of TEA and compared well to the established reference, outperforming previous works on TEA. Key to the success was the innovative high-speed air sampling and fully digital real-time data processing system.
Loic Lechevallier, Roberto Grilli, Erik Kerstel, Daniele Romanini, and Jérôme Chappellaz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3101–3109,Short summary
In this work we describe a highly sensitive optical spectrometer for simultaneous measurement of methane, ethane, and the isotopic composition of methane. The coupling of the spectrometer with a dissolved gas extraction system will provide a suitable tool for understanding the origins of the dissolved hydrocarbons and discriminate between the different sources (e.g., biogenic vs. thermogenic).
Kate R. Smith, Peter M. Edwards, Peter D. Ivatt, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, Chengliang Dai, Richard E. Peltier, Mat J. Evans, Yele Sun, and Alastair C. Lewis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1325–1336,Short summary
Clusters of low-cost, low-power atmospheric gas sensors were built into a sensor instrument to monitor NO2 and O3 in Beijing, alongside reference instruments, aiming to improve the reliability of sensor measurements. Clustering identical sensors and using the median sensor signal was used to minimize drift over short and medium timescales. Three different machine learning techniques were used for all the sensor data in an attempt to correct for cross-interferences, which worked to some degree.
Mei Bai, Helen Suter, Shu Kee Lam, Thomas K. Flesch, and Deli Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1095–1102,Short summary
Improving direct field measurement techniques to quantify gas emissions from large agriculture farm is challenging. We measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions with static closed chambers and slant open-path flux gradient (FG) approaches following chicken manure application. The concurrent emission ratios (FG / chamber) showed N2O fluxes measured by FG were 1.22-1.40 times higher than those from the chambers. This study provides important information for the agriculture gas measurement community.
Vincent Michoud, Stéphane Sauvage, Thierry Léonardis, Isabelle Fronval, Alexandre Kukui, Nadine Locoge, and Sébastien Dusanter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5729–5740,Short summary
This study presents the first measurements of ambient methylglyoxal, an important atmospheric α-dicarbonyl, using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These measurements mostly agree with concomitant measurements from a reference technique: the DNPH derivatization technique and high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. In addition, a careful investigation of the differences between the two techniques is carried out to explain the disagreements observed.
Michael J. Prather, Clare M. Flynn, Xin Zhu, Stephen D. Steenrod, Sarah A. Strode, Arlene M. Fiore, Gustavo Correa, Lee T. Murray, and Jean-Francois Lamarque
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2653–2668,Short summary
A new protocol for merging in situ atmospheric chemistry measurements with 3-D models is developed. This technique can identify the most reactive air parcels in terms of tropospheric production/loss of O3 & CH4. This approach highlights differences in 6 global chemistry models even with composition specified. Thus in situ measurements from, e.g., NASA's ATom mission can be used to develop a chemical climatology of, not only the key species, but also the rates of key reactions in each air parcel.
Richard H. Grant and Rex A. Omonode
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2119–2133,Short summary
Annual emissions of trace gases requires knowledge of the emissions throughout the day and year. Unfortunately emissions into the surface boundary layer during calm nights are rarely measured. During such conditions surface layer concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) often accumulate in the surface boundary layer and the time rate of change of this accumulation was used to estimate emissions. Results showed this approach to be reasonable.
Kira Sadighi, Evan Coffey, Andrea Polidori, Brandon Feenstra, Qin Lv, Daven K. Henze, and Michael Hannigan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1777–1792,Short summary
Ground-level ozone has negative human health impacts. In the summer of 2015, 13 low-cost sensor monitors were deployed to several neighborhoods around Riverside, California. There were significant spatial differences between monitors. This is important because it means that ozone in certain places may be higher than what EPA monitors report for an area, which is pertinent for residents of those communities. This research helps inform the limitations and advantages of low-cost sensor networks.
Bas Mijling, Qijun Jiang, Dave de Jonge, and Stefano Bocconi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1297–1312,Short summary
Although in many cities the population is exposed to air pollution, real-time air quality is usually only measured at a few locations. New low-cost sensor technology has the potential to extend the monitoring network significantly. We show that citizen science campaigns using the current generations of electrochemical NO2 sensors may provide useful complementary data on local air quality in an urban setting, provided that experiments are properly set up and the data are carefully analysed.
Natasha L. Miles, Douglas K. Martins, Scott J. Richardson, Christopher W. Rella, Caleb Arata, Thomas Lauvaux, Kenneth J. Davis, Zachary R. Barkley, Kathryn McKain, and Colm Sweeney
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1273–1295,Short summary
Analyzers measuring methane and methane isotopic ratio were deployed at four towers in the Marcellus Shale natural gas extraction region of Pennsylvania. The methane isotopic ratio is helpful for differentiating emissions from natural gas activities from other sources (e.g., landfills). We describe the analyzer calibration. The signals observed in the study region were generally small, but the instrumental performance demonstrated here could be used in regions with stronger enhancements.
David H. Hagan, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Jonathan P. Franklin, Lisa M. M. Wallace, Benjamin D. Kocar, Colette L. Heald, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 315–328,Short summary
The use of low-cost sensors for air pollution research has outpaced our understanding of their capabilities and limitations under real-world conditions. Here we describe the deployment, calibration and evaluation of electrochemical sensors on the Island of Hawai‘i. We obtain excellent performance (RMSE < 7 ppb, r2 = 0.997) across a wide dynamic range (1 ppb–2 ppm). We introduce a hybrid regression algorithm which works across a large dynamic range and shows little decay in sensitivity over time.
Erin Dunne, Ian E. Galbally, Min Cheng, Paul Selleck, Suzie B. Molloy, and Sarah J. Lawson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 141–159,Short summary
A comparison of measurements of 7 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban air by 3 different methods is presented. An uncertainty was calculated for each method and VOCs measured to provide some idea of the reliability of the data. Even when this uncertainty was accounted for, the measurements from the different methods did not agree for 4 of the 7 VOCs. Thus, there is unaccounted uncertainty in VOC measurements which must be considered when utilizing the data and assessing their reliability.
Michelle M. Lew, Sebastien Dusanter, and Philip S. Stevens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 95–109,Short summary
This paper describes measurements of the conversion efficiency of several organic peroxy radicals upon reaction with nitric oxide to the hydroperoxy radical, which can interfere with measurements of the latter. This interference could explain some of the discrepancies between measurements and model predictions of the hydroperoxy radical. Previous measurements of the hydroperoxy radical during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area campaign in 2006 are reanalyzed to account for the interference.
Pamela Rickly and Philip S. Stevens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1–16,Short summary
The hydroxyl radical is the primary atmospheric oxidant in the atmosphere, and measurements of its concentration provide a rigorous test of our understanding of atmospheric chemistry. This paper presents measurements of a potential interference with measurements of OH using laser-induced fluorescence techniques, which may contribute to measurements of OH in forested environments. The results may help to explain discrepancies between measurements and model predictions in these environments.
Sébastien Ars, Grégoire Broquet, Camille Yver Kwok, Yelva Roustan, Lin Wu, Emmanuel Arzoumanian, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 5017–5037,Short summary
This study presents a new concept for estimating the pollutant emission rates of a site combining the tracer release method, local-scale atmospheric transport modelling and a statistical atmospheric inversion approach. The potential of this new concept is evaluated with a practical implementation based on a series of inversions of controlled methane and tracer point sources in different spatial configurations to assess the efficiency of the method in comparison with the classic tracer method.
Hendrik Fuchs, Anna Novelli, Michael Rolletter, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Stephan Kessel, Achim Edtbauer, Jonathan Williams, Vincent Michoud, Sebastien Dusanter, Nadine Locoge, Nora Zannoni, Valerie Gros, Francois Truong, Roland Sarda-Esteve, Danny R. Cryer, Charlotte A. Brumby, Lisa K. Whalley, Daniel Stone, Paul W. Seakins, Dwayne E. Heard, Coralie Schoemaecker, Marion Blocquet, Sebastien Coudert, Sebastien Batut, Christa Fittschen, Alexander B. Thames, William H. Brune, Cheryl Ernest, Hartwig Harder, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Thomas Elste, Dagmar Kubistin, Stefanie Andres, Birger Bohn, Thorsten Hohaus, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Franz Rohrer, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Zhujun Yu, Qi Zou, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4023–4053,Short summary
Hydroxyl radical reactivity (k(OH)) is closely related to processes that lead to the formation of oxidised, secondary pollutants such as ozone and aerosol. In order to compare the performances of instruments measuring k(OH), experiments were conducted in the simulation chamber SAPHIR. Chemical conditions were chosen either to be representative of the atmosphere or to test potential limitations of instruments. Overall, the results show that instruments are capable of measuring k(OH).
Eben S. Cross, Leah R. Williams, David K. Lewis, Gregory R. Magoon, Timothy B. Onasch, Michael L. Kaminsky, Douglas R. Worsnop, and John T. Jayne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3575–3588,Short summary
Low-cost air quality sensor technologies offer new opportunities for fast and distributed measurements of air pollution, but a persistent characterization gap remains when it comes to evaluating sensor performance under realistic environmental sampling conditions. We present results from a newly developed integrated AQ-sensor system (ARISense) and demonstrate the utility of using high-dimensional model representation to improve the conversion of raw sensor signal to ambient concentration.
Abigail Koss, Bin Yuan, Carsten Warneke, Jessica B. Gilman, Brian M. Lerner, Patrick R. Veres, Jeff Peischl, Scott Eilerman, Rob Wild, Steven S. Brown, Chelsea R. Thompson, Thomas Ryerson, Thomas Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, Mitchell Thayer, Frank N. Keutsch, Shane Murphy, and Joost de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2941–2968,Short summary
Oil and gas extraction activity can cause air quality issues through emission of reactive chemicals. VOCs related to extraction operations in the United States were measured by PTR-ToF-MS from aircraft during the SONGNEX campaign in March–April 2015. The detailed analysis in this work provides a guide to interpreting PTR-ToF measurements in oil- and gas-producing regions, and it includes fundamental observations of VOC speciation and mixing ratios.
Caroline Brosy, Karina Krampf, Matthias Zeeman, Benjamin Wolf, Wolfgang Junkermann, Klaus Schäfer, Stefan Emeis, and Harald Kunstmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2773–2784,Short summary
Vertical and horizontal sounding of the planetary boundary layer can be complemented by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Utilizing a multicopter-type UAV spatial sampling of air and simultaneously sensing of meteorological variables is possible for the study of surface exchange processes. During stable atmospheric conditions, vertical methane gradients of about 300 ppb were found. This approach extended the vertical profile height of existing tower-based infrastructure by a factor of five.
Cory R. Martin, Ning Zeng, Anna Karion, Russell R. Dickerson, Xinrong Ren, Bari N. Turpie, and Kristy J. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2383–2395,Short summary
A low-cost sensor for measuring carbon dioxide is evaluated for its performance in detecting concentrations in Earth's atmosphere. After a multivariate regression correcting for environmental variables, the root mean square error between it and a research-grade gas analyzer is less than 0.5 % of the observed average value. This demonstrates the viability for using these sensors in certain real-world atmospheric observing applications.
Lukas Lesmeister and Matthias Koschorreck
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2377–2382,Short summary
Greenhouse gas emissions from dry aquatic sediments are probably globally relevant. However, they are difficult to measure because of the often rocky substrate. We tested the performance of different materials to seal a closed chamber to stony ground both in laboratory and field experiments. Pottery clay was a convenient sealing material, while the use of on-site material produced artefacts. We confirmed that CO2 fluxes from dry aquatic sediments were similar to fluxes from
Terry Deshler, Rene Stübi, Francis J. Schmidlin, Jennifer L. Mercer, Herman G. J. Smit, Bryan J. Johnson, Rigel Kivi, and Bruno Nardi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2021–2043,Short summary
Ozonesondes, small balloon-borne instruments to measure ozone profiles, are used once and lost. Quality control is thus essential. From the mid-1990s to late 2000s differences in manufacturers' (Science Pump and ENSCI) recommended sensor solution concentrations, 1.0 % and 0.5 % potassium iodide, led to some confusion. This paper uses comparison measurements to derive transfer functions to homogenize the measurements made with non-standard combinations of instrument and sensor solution.
Irène Ventrillard, Irène Xueref-Remy, Martina Schmidt, Camille Yver Kwok, Xavier Faïn, and Daniele Romanini
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1803–1812,Short summary
We present a comparison of CO measurements performed with a portable OF-CEAS laser spectrometer against a high-performance gas chromatograph. For both surface and airborne measurements, the instruments show an excellent agreement very close to the 2 ppb World Meteorological Organization recommendation for CO inter-laboratory comparison. This work establishes that this laser technique allows for the development of sensitive, compact, robust and reliable instruments for in situ trace-gas analysis.
Dominik Schmithüsen, Scott Chambers, Bernd Fischer, Stefan Gilge, Juha Hatakka, Victor Kazan, Rolf Neubert, Jussi Paatero, Michel Ramonet, Clemens Schlosser, Sabine Schmid, Alex Vermeulen, and Ingeborg Levin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1299–1312,Short summary
A European-wide 222radon/222radon progeny comparison study has been conducted at nine measurement stations in order to determine differences between existing 222radon instrumentation and atmospheric data sets, respectively. Mean differences up to 45 % were found between monitors. These differences need to be taken into account if the data shall serve for quantitative regional atmospheric transport model validation.
Jingyong Ma, Tianshan Zha, Xin Jia, Steve Sargent, Rex Burgon, Charles P.-A. Bourque, Xinhua Zhou, Peng Liu, Yujie Bai, and Yajuan Wu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1259–1267,Short summary
The vortex intake significantly reduced maintenance requirements and downtime for a closed-path eddy-covariance system compared to the original inline filter design. Vortex intake kept the sample cell windows cleaner, preserving the optical signal strength of CO2 longer. Its installation also avoided the need for an inline filter in the sample path, sustaining an acceptable sample cell differential pressure over a much longer period. There was no significant attenuation of high frequencies.
Carsten Schaller, Mathias Göckede, and Thomas Foken
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 869–880,Short summary
The eddy covariance (EC) method allows for measuring and calculating vertical turbulent exchange fluxes between ecosystems and the atmosphere. It fails in non-steady-state flow conditions, e.g. in Arctic regions. Two alternative calculation methods, conditional sampling and wavelet analysis, were implemented and compared to EC. Wavelet analysis for allows calculating a trustworthy flux even in non-stationary times and offers new possibilities for exact flux calculation in difficult environments.
Heidi Hellén, Simon Schallhart, Arnaud P. Praplan, Tuukka Petäjä, and Hannele Hakola
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 281–289,Short summary
There is a lack of knowledge of volatile organic acids (VOAs), other than formic and acetic acids in gas phase, and this is at least partly due to the lack of sensitive enough measurement methods. In the present study we developed an in situ GC–MS measurement method for measuring C2–C7 monocarboxylic VOAs at ambient air concentration levels, which we used to measure ambient air concentrations in a boreal forest site. In addition, found mixing ratios were compared with PTR-TOFMS data.
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Bhartia, P. K. and Wellemeyer, C. W.: OMI TOMS-V8 Total O3 Algorithm, Algorithm Theoretical Baseline Document: OMI Ozone Products, edited by: Bhartia, P. K., Vol. II, ATBD-OMI-02, Version 2.0, Aug. 2002.
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Bogumil, K., Orphal, J., Homann, T., Voigt, S., Spietz, P., Fleischmann, O. C., Vogel, A., Hartmann, M., Bovensmann, H., Frerik, J., and Burrows, J. P.: Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY Pre-Flight Model: Instrument characterization and reference spectra for atmospheric remote sensing in the 230–2380 nm region, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A, 157, 167–184, 2003.
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Bracher, A., Sinnhuber, M., Rozanov, A., and Burrows, J. P.: Using a photochemical model for the validation of NO2 satellite measurements at different solar zenith angles, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 393–408, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-5-393-2005, 2005.
Bramstedt, K., Gleason, J., Loyola, D., Thomas, W., Bracher, A., Weber, M., and Burrows, J. P.: Comparison of total ozone from the satellite instruments GOME and TOMS with measurements from the Dobson network 1996–2000, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 1409–1419, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-3-1409-2003, 2003.
Buchard, V., Brogniez, C., Auriol, F., Bonnel, B., Lenoble, J., Tanskanen, A., Bojkov, B., and Veefkind, P.: Comparison of OMI ozone and UV irradiance data with ground-based measurements at two French sites, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 4517–4528, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-4517-2008, 2008.
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