Articles | Volume 12, issue 9
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4659–4676, 2019
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Special issue: The 10th International Carbon Dioxide Conference (ICDC10)...
Research article 02 Sep 2019
Research article | 02 Sep 2019
Bayesian atmospheric tomography for detection and quantification of methane emissions: application to data from the 2015 Ginninderra release experiment
Laura Cartwright et al.
No articles found.
Nicholas M. Deutscher, Travis A. Naylor, Christopher G. R. Caldow, Hamish L. McDougall, Alex G. Carter, and David W. T. Griffith
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3119–3130,Short summary
This work describes the performance of an open-path measurement system for greenhouse gases in an extended field trial. The instrument obtained measurement repeatability of 0.1 % or better for CO2 and CH4 measurements over a 1.55 km one-way pathway. Comparison to co-located in situ measurements allows characterisation of biases relative to global reference scales. The research was done to show the applicability of the technique and its ability to detect atmospheric-relevant sources and sinks.
Mahesh Kumar Sha, Bavo Langerock, Jean-François L. Blavier, Thomas Blumenstock, Tobias Borsdorff, Matthias Buschmann, Angelika Dehn, Martine De Mazière, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, Omaira E. García, David W. T. Griffith, Michel Grutter, James W. Hannigan, Frank Hase, Pauli Heikkinen, Christian Hermans, Laura T. Iraci, Pascal Jeseck, Nicholas Jones, Rigel Kivi, Nicolas Kumps, Jochen Landgraf, Alba Lorente, Emmanuel Mahieu, Maria V. Makarova, Johan Mellqvist, Jean-Marc Metzger, Isamu Morino, Tomoo Nagahama, Justus Notholt, Hirofumi Ohyama, Ivan Ortega, Mathias Palm, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, John Robinson, Sébastien Roche, Coleen M. Roehl, Amelie N. Röhling, Constantina Rousogenous, Matthias Schneider, Kei Shiomi, Dan Smale, Wolfgang Stremme, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Osamu Uchino, Voltaire A. Velazco, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Pucai Wang, Thorsten Warneke, Tyler Wizenberg, Debra Wunch, Shoma Yamanouchi, Yang Yang, and Minqiang Zhou
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
This paper presents for the first time Sentinel-5 Precursor Methane and Carbon Monoxide validation results covering a period from November 2017 to September 2020. For this study, we used global TCCON and NDACC-IRWG network data covering a wide range of atmospheric and surface conditions at different terrains. We also show the influence of a priori alignment, smoothing uncertainties, and the sensitivity of the validation results towards the application of advanced co-location criteria.
Matthias Schneider, Benjamin Ertl, Christopher J. Diekmann, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Amelie N. Röhling, Frank Hase, Darko Dubravica, Omaira E. García, Eliezer Sepúlveda, Tobias Borsdorff, Jochen Landgraf, Alba Lorente, Huilin Chen, Rigel Kivi, Thomas Laemmel, Michel Ramonet, Cyril Crevoisier, Jérome Pernin, Martin Steinbacher, Frank Meinhardt, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, Voltaire A. Velazco, and David F. Pollard
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
We present a computationally very efficient method for the synergetic use of different remote sensing data sets. We apply the method to IASI vertical profile and TROPOMI total column space borne methane observations and thus gain sensitivity for the tropospheric methane partial columns, which is not achievable by the individual use of TROPOMI and IASI. These synergetic effects are evaluated theoretically and by inter-comparisons to independent references of TCCON, AirCore, and GAW.
Alba Lorente, Tobias Borsdorff, Andre Butz, Otto Hasekamp, Joost aan de Brugh, Andreas Schneider, Lianghai Wu, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Debra Wunch, David F. Pollard, Kei Shiomi, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Voltaire A. Velazco, Coleen M. Roehl, Paul O. Wennberg, Thorsten Warneke, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 665–684,Short summary
TROPOMI aboard Sentinel-5P satellite provides methane (CH4) measurements with exceptional temporal and spatial resolution. The study describes a series of improvements developed to retrieve CH4 from TROPOMI. The updated CH4 product features (among others) a more accurate a posteriori correction derived independently of any reference data. The validation of the improved data product shows good agreement with ground-based and satellite measurements, which highlights the quality of the TROPOMI CH4.
Yohanna Villalobos, Peter J. Rayner, Jeremy D. Silver, Steven Thomas, Vanessa Haverd, Jürgen Knauer, Zoë M. Loh, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, and David F. Pollard
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Semi-arid ecosystems such as Australia are evolving and might play an essential role in the future of climate change. We use carbon dioxide concentrations derived from OCO-2 satellite instrument and a regional transport model to understand if Australia was a carbon sink or source of CO2 in 2015. Our research's main findings suggest that Australia acted as a carbon sink of about -0.3 +- 0.09 petagram of carbon in 2015, driven primarily by sparsely vegetated, savanna, and Mediterranean ecosystems.
Stefan Noël, Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Jakob Borchardt, Michael Hilker, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Antonio Di Noia, Hiroshi Suto, Yukio Yoshida, Matthias Buschmann, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, James R. Podolske, David F. Pollard, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
We present first GOSAT and GOSAT-2 XCO2 data derived with the FOCAL retrieval algorithm. Comparisons of the GOSAT FOCAL product with other data reveal a long-term agreement within about 1 ppm over one decade, differences in seasonal variations of about 0.5 ppm and a mean regional bias to ground based TCCON data of 0.56 ppm with a mean scatter of 1.89 ppm. GOSAT-2 FOCAL data are considered to be preliminary only, but first comparisons show that they compare well with the GOSAT FOCAL results.
Robert J. Parker, Alex Webb, Hartmut Boesch, Peter Somkuti, Rocio Barrio Guillo, Antonio Di Noia, Nikoleta Kalaitzi, Jasdeep S. Anand, Peter Bergamaschi, Frederic Chevallier, Paul I. Palmer, Liang Feng, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Coleen Roehl, Mahesh K. Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, Thorsten Warneke, Paul O. Wennberg, and Debra Wunch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3383–3412,Short summary
This work presents the latest release of the University of Leicester GOSAT methane data and acts as the definitive description of this dataset. We detail the processing, validation and evaluation involved in producing these data and highlight its many applications. With now over a decade of global atmospheric methane observations, this dataset has helped, and will continue to help, us better understand the global methane budget and investigate how it may respond to a future changing climate.
Mei Bai, José I. Velazco, Trevor W. Coates, Frances A. Phillips, Thomas K. Flesch, Julian Hill, David G. Mayer, Nigel W. Tomkins, Roger S. Hegarty, and Deli Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMT
Matthieu Dogniaux, Cyril Crevoisier, Raymond Armante, Virginie Capelle, Thibault Delahaye, Vincent Cassé, Martine De Mazière, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, Omaira E. Garcia, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, David F. Pollard, Coleen M. Roehl, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
In this work we present the Adaptable 4A Inversion (5AI), an implementation of the Optimal Estimation (OE) algorithm, relying on the 4A/OP radiative transfer model, that enables to retrieve greenhouse gas atmospheric weighted columns from infrared measurements. It is tested on a sample of Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) observations and its results satisfactorily compare to several reference products, thus showing the reliability of 5AI OE implementation.
Hirofumi Ohyama, Isamu Morino, Voltaire A. Velazco, Theresa Klausner, Gerry Bagtasa, Matthäus Kiel, Matthias Frey, Akihiro Hori, Osamu Uchino, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Joshua P. DiGangi, Yonghoon Choi, Glenn S. Diskin, Sally E. Pusede, Alina Fiehn, Anke Roiger, Michael Lichtenstern, Hans Schlager, Pao K. Wang, Charles C.-K. Chou, Maria Dolores Andrés-Hernández, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5149–5163,Short summary
Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 measured by a solar viewing portable Fourier transform spectrometer (EM27/SUN) were validated with in situ profile data obtained during the transfer flights of two aircraft campaigns. Atmospheric dynamical properties based on ERA5 and WRF-Chem were used as criteria for selecting the best aircraft profiles for the validation. The resulting air-mass-independent correction factors for the EM27/SUN data were 0.9878 for CO2 and 0.9829 for CH4.
Ilya Stanevich, Dylan B. A. Jones, Kimberly Strong, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Debra Wunch, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Ralf Sussmann, Matthias Schneider, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Voltaire A. Velazco, Kaley A. Walker, and Feng Deng
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3839–3862,Short summary
Systematic errors in atmospheric models pose a challenge for inverse modeling studies of methane (CH4) emissions. We evaluated the CH4 simulation in the GEOS-Chem model at the horizontal resolutions of 4° × 5° and 2° × 2.5°. Our analysis identified resolution-dependent biases in the model, which we attributed to discrepancies between the two model resolutions in vertical transport in the troposphere and in stratosphere–troposphere exchange.
Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Oliver Schneising, Stefan Noël, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Hartmut Boesch, Antonio Di Noia, Jasdeep Anand, Robert J. Parker, Peter Somkuti, Lianghai Wu, Otto P. Hasekamp, Ilse Aben, Akihiko Kuze, Hiroshi Suto, Kei Shiomi, Yukio Yoshida, Isamu Morino, David Crisp, Christopher W. O'Dell, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, Rigel Kivi, David F. Pollard, Frank Hase, Ralf Sussmann, Yao V. Té, Kimberly Strong, Sébastien Roche, Mahesh K. Sha, Martine De Mazière, Dietrich G. Feist, Laura T. Iraci, Coleen M. Roehl, Christian Retscher, and Dinand Schepers
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 789–819,Short summary
We present new satellite-derived data sets of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). The data products are column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, denoted XCO2 and XCH4. The products cover the years 2003–2018 and are merged Level 2 (satellite footprints) and merged Level 3 (gridded at monthly time and 5° x 5° spatial resolution) products obtained from combining several individual sensor products. We present the merging algorithms and product validation results.
Jonas Simon Wilzewski, Anke Roiger, Johan Strandgren, Jochen Landgraf, Dietrich G. Feist, Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Isamu Morino, Hirofumi Ohyama, Yao Té, Rigel Kivi, Thorsten Warneke, Justus Notholt, Manvendra Dubey, Ralf Sussmann, Markus Rettinger, Frank Hase, Kei Shiomi, and André Butz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 731–745,Short summary
Through spectral degradation of GOSAT measurements in the 1.6 and 2.0 μm spectral bands, we mimic a single-band, passive satellite sensor for monitoring of CO2 emissions at fine spatial scales. We compare retrievals of XCO2 from these bands to TCCON and native GOSAT retrievals. At spectral resolutions near 1.3 nm, XCO2 retrievals from both bands show promising performance, but the 2.0 μm band is favorable due to better noise performance and the potential to retrieve some aerosol information.
Oliver Schneising, Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Tobias Borsdorff, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Christian Hermans, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Jochen Landgraf, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Sébastien Roche, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Voltaire A. Velazco, Thorsten Warneke, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6771–6802,Short summary
We introduce an algorithm that is used to simultaneously derive the abundances of the important atmospheric constituents carbon monoxide and methane from the TROPOMI instrument onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite, which enables the determination of both gases with an unprecedented level of detail on a global scale. The quality of the resulting data sets is assessed and the first results are presented.
Ilya Stanevich, Dylan B. A. Jones, Kimberly Strong, Martin Keller, Daven K. Henze, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Debra Wunch, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Ralf Sussmann, Matthias Schneider, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Voltaire A. Velazco, Kaley A. Walker, and Feng Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We explore the utility of a weak constraint (WC) four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation scheme for mitigating systematic errors in the methane simulation in the GEOS-Chem model. We use data from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and show that, compared to the traditional 4D-Var approach, the WC scheme improves the agreement between the model and independent observations. We find that the WC corrections to the model provide insight into the source of the errors.
Susan S. Kulawik, Sean Crowell, David Baker, Junjie Liu, Kathryn McKain, Colm Sweeney, Sebastien C. Biraud, Steve Wofsy, Christopher W. O'Dell, Paul O. Wennberg, Debra Wunch, Coleen M. Roehl, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Matthäus Kiel, David W. T. Griffith, Voltaire A. Velazco, Justus Notholt, Thorsten Warneke, Christof Petri, Martine De Mazière, Mahesh K. Sha, Ralf Sussmann, Markus Rettinger, Dave F. Pollard, Isamu Morino, Osamu Uchino, Frank Hase, Dietrich G. Feist, Sébastien Roche, Kimberly Strong, Rigel Kivi, Laura Iraci, Kei Shiomi, Manvendra K. Dubey, Eliezer Sepulveda, Omaira Elena Garcia Rodriguez, Yao Té, Pascal Jeseck, Pauli Heikkinen, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Michael R. Gunson, Annmarie Eldering, David Crisp, Brendan Fisher, and Gregory B. Osterman
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Publication in AMT not foreseenShort summary
This paper provides a benchmark of OCO-2 v8 and ACOS-GOSAT v7.3 XCO2 and lowermost tropospheric (LMT) errors. The paper focuses on the systematic errors and subtracts out validation, co-location, and random errors, looks at the correlation scale-length (spatially and temporally) of systematic errors, finding that the scale lengths are similar to bias correction scale-lengths. The assimilates of the bias correction term is used to place an error on fluxes estimates.
Jacob K. Hedelius, Tai-Long He, Dylan B. A. Jones, Bianca C. Baier, Rebecca R. Buchholz, Martine De Mazière, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Manvendra K. Dubey, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Pascal Jeseck, Matthäus Kiel, Rigel Kivi, Cheng Liu, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, Sébastien Roche, Coleen M. Roehl, Matthias Schneider, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Colm Sweeney, Yao Té, Osamu Uchino, Voltaire A. Velazco, Wei Wang, Thorsten Warneke, Paul O. Wennberg, Helen M. Worden, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5547–5572,Short summary
We seek ways to improve the accuracy of column measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) – an important tracer of pollution – made from the MOPITT satellite instrument. We devise a filtering scheme which reduces the scatter and also eliminates bias among the MOPITT detectors. Compared to ground-based observations, MOPITT measurements are about 6 %–8 % higher. When MOPITT data are implemented in a global assimilation model, they tend to reduce the model mismatch with aircraft measurements.
Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Isamu Morino, Osamu Uchino, Beata Bukosa, Masataka Ajiro, Akihide Kamei, Nicholas B. Jones, Clare Paton-Walsh, and David W. T. Griffith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 935–946,Short summary
We present ground-based measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide columns from a portable spectrometer taken in a semiarid region of Australia. We compared these measurements to space-based retrievals from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and calibrated them against a Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) instrument to ascertain a retrieval bias. We also present the unique opportunities that Central Australia could offer in the context of satellite product validation.
Beata Bukosa, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Jenny A. Fisher, Dagmar Kubistin, Clare Paton-Walsh, and David W. T. Griffith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7055–7072,Short summary
The carbon greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and CO) were proven to have a large impact on the global carbon cycle and our climate. To understand the variability of the carbon cycle and predict future climate change scenarios, we need to study the processes that drive the changes of these gases in the atmosphere. We study the sources and sinks of CO2, CH4 and CO with a combination of measurements and chemical transport modelling to identify missing, underestimated or overestimated sources in Australia.
Debra Wunch, Dylan B. A. Jones, Geoffrey C. Toon, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Frank Hase, Justus Notholt, Ralf Sussmann, Thorsten Warneke, Jeroen Kuenen, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Jenny A. Fisher, and Joannes D. Maasakkers
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3963–3980,Short summary
We used five atmospheric observatories in Europe measuring total column dry-air mole fractions of methane and carbon monoxide to infer methane emissions in the area between the observatories. We find that the methane emissions are overestimated by the state-of-the-art inventories, and that this is likely due, at least in part, to the inventory disaggregation. We find that there is significant uncertainty in the carbon monoxide inventories that requires further investigation.
Matthias Frey, Mahesh K. Sha, Frank Hase, Matthäus Kiel, Thomas Blumenstock, Roland Harig, Gregor Surawicz, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Kei Shiomi, Jonathan E. Franklin, Hartmut Bösch, Jia Chen, Michel Grutter, Hirofumi Ohyama, Youwen Sun, André Butz, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Dragos Ene, Debra Wunch, Zhensong Cao, Omaira Garcia, Michel Ramonet, Felix Vogel, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1513–1530,Short summary
In a 3.5-year long study, the long-term performance of a mobile EM27/SUN spectrometer, used for greenhouse gas observations, is checked with respect to a co-located reference spectrometer. We find that the EM27/SUN is stable on timescales of several years, qualifying it for permanent carbon cycle studies. The performance of an ensemble of 30 EM27/SUN spectrometers was also tested in the framework of the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON) and found to be very uniform.
Minqiang Zhou, Bavo Langerock, Kelley C. Wells, Dylan B. Millet, Corinne Vigouroux, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Christian Hermans, Jean-Marc Metzger, Rigel Kivi, Pauli Heikkinen, Dan Smale, David F. Pollard, Nicholas Jones, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Thomas Blumenstock, Matthias Schneider, Mathias Palm, Justus Notholt, James W. Hannigan, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1393–1408,Short summary
N2O is an important atmospheric gas which is observed by two ground-based FTIR networks (TCCON and NDACC). The difference between NDACC and TCCON XN2O measurements is discussed. It is found that the bias between the two networks is within their combined uncertainties. However, TCCON measurements are affected by a priori profiles. In addition, the TCCON and NDACC N2O measurements are compared with the GEOS-Chem model simulations.
David F. Pollard, Vanessa Sherlock, John Robinson, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Brian Connor, and Hisako Shiona
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 977–992,
Jenny A. Fisher, Lee T. Murray, Dylan B. A. Jones, and Nicholas M. Deutscher
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4129–4144,Short summary
Carbon monoxide (CO) simulation in atmospheric chemistry models is used for source–receptor analysis, emission inversion, and interpretation of observations. We introduce a major update to CO simulation in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model that removes fundamental inconsistencies relative to the standard model, resolving biases of more than 100 ppb and errors in vertical structure. We also add source tagging of secondary CO and demonstrate it provides added value in low-emission regions.
Zhiting Wang, Thorsten Warneke, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Justus Notholt, Ute Karstens, Marielle Saunois, Matthias Schneider, Ralf Sussmann, Harjinder Sembhi, David W. T. Griffith, Dave F. Pollard, Rigel Kivi, Christof Petri, Voltaire A. Velazco, Michel Ramonet, and Huilin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13283–13295,Short summary
In this paper we separate the biases of atmospheric methane models into stratospheric and tropospheric parts. It is observed in other studies that simulated total columns of atmospheric methane present a latitudinal bias compared to measurements. The latitudinal gradients are considered to be from the stratosphere. However, our results show that the latitudinal biases could come from the troposphere in two of three models evaluated in this study.
Matthias Buschmann, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Mathias Palm, Thorsten Warneke, Christine Weinzierl, and Justus Notholt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2397–2411,Short summary
The column averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 (xCO2 and xCH4) of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) are retrieved from solar absorption Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. At the Ny-Ålesund site in the high arctic, however, during the polar night no solar measurements are possible. Here, we present a new method to measure xCO2 and xCH4 using the moon as a light source in the near-infrared and present the complete seasonal cycles of xCO2 and xCH4.
Debra Wunch, Paul O. Wennberg, Gregory Osterman, Brendan Fisher, Bret Naylor, Coleen M. Roehl, Christopher O'Dell, Lukas Mandrake, Camille Viatte, Matthäus Kiel, David W. T. Griffith, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Voltaire A. Velazco, Justus Notholt, Thorsten Warneke, Christof Petri, Martine De Maziere, Mahesh K. Sha, Ralf Sussmann, Markus Rettinger, David Pollard, John Robinson, Isamu Morino, Osamu Uchino, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Dietrich G. Feist, Sabrina G. Arnold, Kimberly Strong, Joseph Mendonca, Rigel Kivi, Pauli Heikkinen, Laura Iraci, James Podolske, Patrick W. Hillyard, Shuji Kawakami, Manvendra K. Dubey, Harrison A. Parker, Eliezer Sepulveda, Omaira E. García, Yao Te, Pascal Jeseck, Michael R. Gunson, David Crisp, and Annmarie Eldering
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2209–2238,Short summary
This paper describes the comparisons between NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 with its primary ground-based validation network, the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). The paper shows that while the standard bias correction reduces much of the spurious variability in the satellite measurements, residual biases remain.
Liang Feng, Paul I. Palmer, Hartmut Bösch, Robert J. Parker, Alex J. Webb, Caio S. C. Correia, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Lucas G. Domingues, Dietrich G. Feist, Luciana V. Gatti, Emanuel Gloor, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Yi Liu, John B. Miller, Isamu Morino, Ralf Sussmann, Kimberly Strong, Osamu Uchino, Jing Wang, and Andreas Zahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4781–4797,Short summary
We use the GEOS-Chem global 3-D model of atmospheric chemistry and transport and an ensemble Kalman filter to simultaneously infer regional fluxes of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) directly from GOSAT retrievals of XCH4:XCO2, using sparse ground-based CH4 and CO2 mole fraction data to anchor the ratio. Our results show that assimilation of GOSAT data significantly reduced the posterior uncertainty and changed the a priori spatial distribution of CH4 emissions.
Dmitry A. Belikov, Shamil Maksyutov, Alexander Ganshin, Ruslan Zhuravlev, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Debra Wunch, Dietrich G. Feist, Isamu Morino, Robert J. Parker, Kimberly Strong, Yukio Yoshida, Andrey Bril, Sergey Oshchepkov, Hartmut Boesch, Manvendra K. Dubey, David Griffith, Will Hewson, Rigel Kivi, Joseph Mendonca, Justus Notholt, Matthias Schneider, Ralf Sussmann, Voltaire A. Velazco, and Shuji Aoki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 143–157,
Jason Beringer, Lindsay B. Hutley, Ian McHugh, Stefan K. Arndt, David Campbell, Helen A. Cleugh, James Cleverly, Víctor Resco de Dios, Derek Eamus, Bradley Evans, Cacilia Ewenz, Peter Grace, Anne Griebel, Vanessa Haverd, Nina Hinko-Najera, Alfredo Huete, Peter Isaac, Kasturi Kanniah, Ray Leuning, Michael J. Liddell, Craig Macfarlane, Wayne Meyer, Caitlin Moore, Elise Pendall, Alison Phillips, Rebecca L. Phillips, Suzanne M. Prober, Natalia Restrepo-Coupe, Susanna Rutledge, Ivan Schroder, Richard Silberstein, Patricia Southall, Mei Sun Yee, Nigel J. Tapper, Eva van Gorsel, Camilla Vote, Jeff Walker, and Tim Wardlaw
Biogeosciences, 13, 5895–5916,Short summary
OzFlux is the regional Australian and New Zealand flux tower network that aims to provide a continental-scale national facility to monitor and assess trends, and improve predictions, of Australia’s terrestrial biosphere and climate. We describe the evolution, design, and status as well as an overview of data processing. We suggest that a synergistic approach is required to address all of the spatial, ecological, human, and cultural challenges of managing Australian ecosystems.
Andreas Ostler, Ralf Sussmann, Prabir K. Patra, Sander Houweling, Marko De Bruine, Gabriele P. Stiller, Florian J. Haenel, Johannes Plieninger, Philippe Bousquet, Yi Yin, Marielle Saunois, Kaley A. Walker, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, Thomas Blumenstock, Frank Hase, Thorsten Warneke, Zhiting Wang, Rigel Kivi, and John Robinson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4843–4859,Short summary
Our evaluation of column-averaged methane (XCH4) in models and TCCON reveals latitudinal biases between 0.4 % and 2.1 % originating from an inter-model spread in stratospheric CH4. Substituting model stratospheric CH4 fields by satellite data significantly reduces the large XCH4 bias observed for one model. For other models, showing only minor biases, the impact is ambiguous; i.e., the satellite uncertainty range hinders a more accurate model evaluation needed to improve inverse modeling.
Makoto Inoue, Isamu Morino, Osamu Uchino, Takahiro Nakatsuru, Yukio Yoshida, Tatsuya Yokota, Debra Wunch, Paul O. Wennberg, Coleen M. Roehl, David W. T. Griffith, Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Thorsten Warneke, Justus Notholt, John Robinson, Vanessa Sherlock, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Markus Rettinger, Ralf Sussmann, Esko Kyrö, Rigel Kivi, Kei Shiomi, Shuji Kawakami, Martine De Mazière, Sabrina G. Arnold, Dietrich G. Feist, Erica A. Barrow, James Barney, Manvendra Dubey, Matthias Schneider, Laura T. Iraci, James R. Podolske, Patrick W. Hillyard, Toshinobu Machida, Yousuke Sawa, Kazuhiro Tsuboi, Hidekazu Matsueda, Colm Sweeney, Pieter P. Tans, Arlyn E. Andrews, Sebastien C. Biraud, Yukio Fukuyama, Jasna V. Pittman, Eric A. Kort, and Tomoaki Tanaka
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3491–3512,Short summary
In this study, we correct the biases of GOSAT XCO2 and XCH4 using TCCON data. To evaluate the effectiveness of our correction method, uncorrected/corrected GOSAT data are compared to independent XCO2 and XCH4 data derived from aircraft measurements. Consequently, we suggest that this method is effective for reducing the biases of the GOSAT data. We consider that our work provides GOSAT data users with valuable information and contributes to the further development of studies on greenhouse gases.
Yuting Wang, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Mathias Palm, Thorsten Warneke, Justus Notholt, Ian Baker, Joe Berry, Parvadha Suntharalingam, Nicholas Jones, Emmanuel Mahieu, Bernard Lejeune, James Hannigan, Stephanie Conway, Joseph Mendonca, Kimberly Strong, J. Elliott Campbell, Adam Wolf, and Stefanie Kremser
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2123–2138,Short summary
OCS could provide an additional constraint on the carbon cycle. The FTIR networks have existed for more than 20 years. For the first time, we used FTIR measurements of OCS and CO2 to study their relationship. We put the coupled CO2 and OCS land fluxes from the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) into a transport model, and compared the simulations to the measurements. Looking at OCS and CO2 together inspires some new thoughts in how the biospheric models reproduce the carbon cycle in the real world.
Matthias Buschmann, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Vanessa Sherlock, Mathias Palm, Thorsten Warneke, and Justus Notholt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 577–585,Short summary
The column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of CO2 has been retrieved from high-resolution solar absorption spectra from two different measurement networks. We investigate the differences between these retrievals and find that their sensitivity differs greatly. As a result the direct comparison of the two retrievals remains challenging.
H. Lindqvist, C. W. O'Dell, S. Basu, H. Boesch, F. Chevallier, N. Deutscher, L. Feng, B. Fisher, F. Hase, M. Inoue, R. Kivi, I. Morino, P. I. Palmer, R. Parker, M. Schneider, R. Sussmann, and Y. Yoshida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13023–13040,Short summary
Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration varies seasonally mainly due to plant photosynthesis in the Northern Hemisphere. We found that the satellite GOSAT can capture this variability from space to within 1ppm. We also found that models can differ by more than 1ppm. This implies that the satellite measurements could be useful in evaluating models and their prior estimates of carbon dioxide sources and sinks.
R. J. Parker, H. Boesch, K. Byckling, A. J. Webb, P. I. Palmer, L. Feng, P. Bergamaschi, F. Chevallier, J. Notholt, N. Deutscher, T. Warneke, F. Hase, R. Sussmann, S. Kawakami, R. Kivi, D. W. T. Griffith, and V. Velazco
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4785–4801,Short summary
Atmospheric CH4 is an important greenhouse gas. Long-term global observations are necessary to understand its behaviour, with satellite observations playing a key role. The "proxy" retrieval method is one of the most successful but relies on the contribution from atmospheric CO2 models. This work assesses the significance of the uncertainty from the model CO2 within the retrieval and determines that despite this uncertainty the data are still valuable for determining sources and sinks of CH4.
A. Ostler, R. Sussmann, P. K. Patra, P. O. Wennberg, N. M. Deutscher, D. W. T. Griffith, T. Blumenstock, F. Hase, R. Kivi, T. Warneke, Z. Wang, M. De Mazière, J. Robinson, and H. Ohyama
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
We find that stratospheric model-transport errors are common for chemical transport models that are used for inverse estimates of CH4 emissions. These model-transport errors cause latitudinal as well as seasonal biases in simulated stratospheric and, hence, column-averaged CH4 mixing ratios (XCH4). Such a model bias corresponds to an overestimation of arctic and mid-latitude CH4 emissions if inversion studies do not apply an ad hoc bias correction before inverting fluxes from XCH4 observations.
R. A. Scheepmaker, C. Frankenberg, N. M. Deutscher, M. Schneider, S. Barthlott, T. Blumenstock, O. E. Garcia, F. Hase, N. Jones, E. Mahieu, J. Notholt, V. Velazco, J. Landgraf, and I. Aben
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1799–1818,
A. Ostler, R. Sussmann, M. Rettinger, N. M. Deutscher, S. Dohe, F. Hase, N. Jones, M. Palm, and B.-M. Sinnhuber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4081–4101,Short summary
Ground-based FTIR soundings of column-average methane from NDACC and TCCON can be combined without the need to apply an overall calibration factor. NDACC and TCCON measurements complement one another and provide valuable information for satellite validation, evaluation of chemical-transport models, and source-sink inversions. The impact of dynamical variability on NDACC and TCCON retrievals of column-average methane is reflected in different smoothing effects.
A. Agustí-Panareda, S. Massart, F. Chevallier, S. Boussetta, G. Balsamo, A. Beljaars, P. Ciais, N. M. Deutscher, R. Engelen, L. Jones, R. Kivi, J.-D. Paris, V.-H. Peuch, V. Sherlock, A. T. Vermeulen, P. O. Wennberg, and D. Wunch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11959–11983,Short summary
This paper presents a new operational CO2 forecast product as part of the Copernicus Atmospheric Services suite of atmospheric composition products, using the state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction model from the European Centre of Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. The evaluation with independent observations shows that the forecast has skill in predicting the synoptic variability of CO2. The online simulation of CO2 fluxes from vegetation contributes to this skill.
Z. Wang, N. M. Deutscher, T. Warneke, J. Notholt, B. Dils, D. W. T. Griffith, M. Schmidt, M. Ramonet, and C. Gerbig
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3295–3305,
N. M. Deutscher, V. Sherlock, S. E. Mikaloff Fletcher, D. W. T. Griffith, J. Notholt, R. Macatangay, B. J. Connor, J. Robinson, H. Shiona, V. A. Velazco, Y. Wang, P. O. Wennberg, and D. Wunch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9883–9901,
E. Sepúlveda, M. Schneider, F. Hase, S. Barthlott, D. Dubravica, O. E. García, A. Gomez-Pelaez, Y. González, J. C. Guerra, M. Gisi, R. Kohlhepp, S. Dohe, T. Blumenstock, K. Strong, D. Weaver, M. Palm, A. Sadeghi, N. M. Deutscher, T. Warneke, J. Notholt, N. Jones, D. W. T. Griffith, D. Smale, G. W. Brailsford, J. Robinson, F. Meinhardt, M. Steinbacher, T. Aalto, and D. Worthy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2337–2360,
B. Dils, M. Buchwitz, M. Reuter, O. Schneising, H. Boesch, R. Parker, S. Guerlet, I. Aben, T. Blumenstock, J. P. Burrows, A. Butz, N. M. Deutscher, C. Frankenberg, F. Hase, O. P. Hasekamp, J. Heymann, M. De Mazière, J. Notholt, R. Sussmann, T. Warneke, D. Griffith, V. Sherlock, and D. Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1723–1744,
A. Galli, S. Guerlet, A. Butz, I. Aben, H. Suto, A. Kuze, N. M. Deutscher, J. Notholt, D. Wunch, P. O. Wennberg, D. W. T. Griffith, O. Hasekamp, and J. Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1105–1119,
F. Deng, D. B. A. Jones, D. K. Henze, N. Bousserez, K. W. Bowman, J. B. Fisher, R. Nassar, C. O'Dell, D. Wunch, P. O. Wennberg, E. A. Kort, S. C. Wofsy, T. Blumenstock, N. M. Deutscher, D. W. T. Griffith, F. Hase, P. Heikkinen, V. Sherlock, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, and T. Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3703–3727,
D. Wunch, P. O. Wennberg, J. Messerschmidt, N. C. Parazoo, G. C. Toon, N. M. Deutscher, G. Keppel-Aleks, C. M. Roehl, J. T. Randerson, T. Warneke, and J. Notholt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9447–9459,
Y. Yoshida, N. Kikuchi, I. Morino, O. Uchino, S. Oshchepkov, A. Bril, T. Saeki, N. Schutgens, G. C. Toon, D. Wunch, C. M. Roehl, P. O. Wennberg, D. W. T. Griffith, N. M. Deutscher, T. Warneke, J. Notholt, J. Robinson, V. Sherlock, B. Connor, M. Rettinger, R. Sussmann, P. Ahonen, P. Heikkinen, E. Kyrö, J. Mendonca, K. Strong, F. Hase, S. Dohe, and T. Yokota
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1533–1547,
J. Messerschmidt, N. Parazoo, D. Wunch, N. M. Deutscher, C. Roehl, T. Warneke, and P. O. Wennberg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5103–5115,
R. A. Scheepmaker, C. Frankenberg, A. Galli, A. Butz, H. Schrijver, N. M. Deutscher, D. Wunch, T. Warneke, S. Fally, and I. Aben
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 879–894,
H. Boesch, N. M. Deutscher, T. Warneke, K. Byckling, A. J. Cogan, D. W. T. Griffith, J. Notholt, R. J. Parker, and Z. Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 599–612,
M. Schneider, S. Barthlott, F. Hase, Y. González, K. Yoshimura, O. E. García, E. Sepúlveda, A. Gomez-Pelaez, M. Gisi, R. Kohlhepp, S. Dohe, T. Blumenstock, A. Wiegele, E. Christner, K. Strong, D. Weaver, M. Palm, N. M. Deutscher, T. Warneke, J. Notholt, B. Lejeune, P. Demoulin, N. Jones, D. W. T. Griffith, D. Smale, and J. Robinson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 3007–3027,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Technique: In Situ Measurement | Topic: Data Processing and Information RetrievalEmissions relationships in western forest fire plumes – Part 1: Reducing the effect of mixing errors on emission factorsThe high frequency response correction of eddy covariance fluxes. Part 1: an experimental approach for analysing noisy measurements of small fluxesUncertainty of the hourly average concentration values derived from non-continuous measurementsA new method to correct the electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde time response and its implications for “background current” and pump efficiencyMonitoring the compliance of sailing ships with fuel sulfur content regulations using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) measurements of ship emissions in open waterHigh-resolution mapping of urban air quality with heterogeneous observations: a new methodology and its application to AmsterdamTowards standardized processing of eddy covariance flux measurements of carbonyl sulfideIntegration and calibration of non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) CO2 low-cost sensors and their operation in a sensor network covering SwitzerlandCorrecting the impact of the isotope composition on the mixing ratio dependency of water vapour isotope measurements with cavity ring-down spectrometersCorrecting high-frequency losses of reactive nitrogen flux measurementsSurface flux estimates derived from UAS-based mole fraction measurements by means of a nocturnal boundary layer budget approachInnFLUX – an open-source code for conventional and disjunct eddy covariance analysis of trace gas measurements: an urban test caseAccurate measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane mole fractions at the Siberian coastal site AmbarchikTraffic-related air pollution near roadways: discerning local impacts from backgroundEvaluating and improving the reliability of gas-phase sensor system calibrations across new locations for ambient measurements and personal exposure monitoringA novel approach for simple statistical analysis of high-resolution mass spectraApplication of open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) to measure greenhouse gas concentrations from agricultural fieldsFlexible approach for quantifying average long-term changes and seasonal cycles of tropospheric trace speciesThe ICAD (iterative cavity-enhanced DOAS) methodDevelopment of an incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer for measurements of ambient glyoxal and NO2 in a polluted urban environmentAtmospheric CO2, CH4, and CO with the CRDS technique at the Izaña Global GAW station: instrumental tests, developments, and first measurement resultsPossible errors in flux measurements due to limited digitalizationDevelopment of a general calibration model and long-term performance evaluation of low-cost sensors for air pollutant gas monitoringAnalysis of spatial and temporal patterns of on-road NO2 concentrations in Hong KongTesting the performance of field calibration techniques for low-cost gas sensors in new deployment locations: across a county line and across ColoradoCalibration of isotopologue-specific optical trace gas analysers: a practical guideUncertainty of eddy covariance flux measurements over an urban area based on two towersExamination on total ozone column retrievals by Brewer spectrophotometry using different processing softwareUncertainty analysis of total ozone derived from direct solar irradiance spectra in the presence of unknown spectral deviationsIdentification of spikes associated with local sources in continuous time series of atmospheric CO, CO2 and CH4Bootstrap inversion technique for atmospheric trace gas source detection and quantification using long open-path laser measurementsAdaptive selection of diurnal minimum variation: a statistical strategy to obtain representative atmospheric CO2 data and its application to European elevated mountain stationsA machine learning calibration model using random forests to improve sensor performance for lower-cost air quality monitoringImproved methods for signal processing in measurements of mercury by Tekran® 2537A and 2537B instrumentsCH4 emission estimates from an active landfill site inferred from a combined approach of CFD modelling and in situ FTIR measurementsEddy covariance carbonyl sulfide flux measurements with a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometerApplication of Gauss's theorem to quantify localized surface emissions from airborne measurements of wind and trace gasesA simple calculation algorithm to separate high-resolution CH4 flux measurements into ebullition- and diffusion-derived componentsImpact of biomass burning emission on total peroxy nitrates: fire plume identification during the BORTAS campaignContinuous and high-precision atmospheric concentration measurements of COS, CO2, CO and H2O using a quantum cascade laser spectrometer (QCLS)Random uncertainties of flux measurements by the eddy covariance techniqueQuantifying the uncertainty of eddy covariance fluxes due to the use of different software packages and combinations of processing steps in two contrasting ecosystemsA semiempirical error estimation technique for PWV derived from atmospheric radiosonde dataAutomatic processing of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 mole fractions at the ICOS Atmosphere Thematic CentreOptimal use of buffer volumes for the measurement of atmospheric gas concentration in multi-point systemsIncreasing the accuracy and temporal resolution of two-filter radon–222 measurements by correcting for the instrument responseIndustrial SO2 emission monitoring through a portable multichannel gas analyzer with an optimized retrieval algorithmMobile sensor network noise reduction and recalibration using a Bayesian networkComparison of the regional CO2 mole fraction filtering approaches at a WMO/GAW regional station in ChinaThe stability and calibration of water vapor isotope ratio measurements during long-term deployments
Robert B. Chatfield, Meinrat O. Andreae, ARCTAS Science Team, and SEAC4RS Science Team
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 7069–7096,Short summary
Forest burning affects air pollution and global climate. A NASA aircraft studied fire emissions including the Rim Fire near Yosemite. We found frequent confusions between the actual fire emission factors and other effects on the air samples. Effects on CO2 and CO can originate far upwind; the gases can mix variably into a smoke plume. We devised a theory of constant features in plumes. A statistical mixed-effects analysis of a co-emitted tracers model disentangles such mixing from fire effects.
Toprak Aslan, Olli Peltola, Andreas Ibrom, Eiko Nemitz, Üllar Rannik, and Ivan Mammarella
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Vertical turbulent fluxes of gases measured by the eddy covariance (EC) technique are subject to high frequency losses. There are different methods used to describe this low-pass filtering effect and to correct the measured fluxes. In this study, we analyzed the systematic uncertainty related to this correction for various attenuation and signal-to-noise ratios. A new and robust transfer function method is finally proposed.
László Haszpra and Ernő Prácser
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Most of the tall-tower GHG observatories applies a single gas analyzer for the sequential sampling of several intakes along the tower. The non-continuous sampling at each intake introduces excess uncertainty to the calculated hourly average concentrations used in several applications. Based on real-world measurements the paper systematically assesses this type of uncertainty.
Holger Vömel, Herman G. J. Smit, David Tarasick, Bryan Johnson, Samuel J. Oltmans, Henry Selkirk, Anne M. Thompson, Ryan M. Stauffer, Jacquelyn C. Witte, Jonathan Davies, Roeland van Malderen, Gary A. Morris, Tatsumi Nakano, and Rene Stübi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5667–5680,Short summary
The time response of electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes points to at least two distinct reaction pathways with time constants of approximately 20 s and 25 min. Properly considering these time constants eliminates the need for a poorly defined "background" and allows reducing ad hoc corrections based on laboratory tests. This reduces the uncertainty of ECC ozonesonde measurements throughout the profile and especially in regions of low ozone and strong gradients of ozone.
Fan Zhou, Liwei Hou, Rui Zhong, Wei Chen, Xunpeng Ni, Shengda Pan, Ming Zhao, and Bowen An
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4899–4909,Short summary
On 15 July 2019, using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), maritime authorities ferreted out a sailing ship whose fuel sulfur content (FSC) failed to meet Chinese regulations. This was the first time that a sailing ship had been caught for having failed the FSC regulations in China. The UAV system, method, and monitoring result utilized are discussed in this paper. We recommend that emissions from sailing ships be monitored more often in the open water in the future.
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4601–4617,Short summary
Many cities are experimenting with networks of low-cost sensors, complementary to their reference stations. Often the observations are published as dots on a map, as spatial interpolation is far from trivial. A new methodology to assimilate observations of different accuracy in a generic urban-air-quality model is introduced. It can be used for mapping local air quality based on reference measurements only or as a framework to integrate low-cost measurements next to official measurements.
Kukka-Maaria Kohonen, Pasi Kolari, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Huilin Chen, Ulli Seibt, Wu Sun, and Ivan Mammarella
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3957–3975,Short summary
Biosphere–atmosphere gas exchange (flux) measurements of carbonyl sulfide (COS) are becoming popular for estimating biospheric photosynthesis. To compare COS flux measurements across different measurement sites, we need standardized protocols for data processing. We analyze how various data processing steps affect the calculated COS flux and how they differ from carbon dioxide (CO2) flux processing steps, and we aim to settle on a set of recommended protocols for COS flux calculation.
Michael Müller, Peter Graf, Jonas Meyer, Anastasia Pentina, Dominik Brunner, Fernando Perez-Cruz, Christoph Hüglin, and Lukas Emmenegger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3815–3834,
Yongbiao Weng, Alexandra Touzeau, and Harald Sodemann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3167–3190,Short summary
We find that the known mixing ratio dependence of laser spectrometers for water vapour isotope measurements varies with isotope composition. We have developed a scheme to correct for this isotope-composition-dependent bias. The correction is most substantial at low mixing ratios. Stability tests indicate that the first-order dependency is a constant instrument characteristic. Water vapour isotope measurements at low mixing ratios can now be corrected by following our proposed procedure.
Pascal Wintjen, Christof Ammann, Frederik Schrader, and Christian Brümmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2923–2948,Short summary
With recent technological advances it is now possible to measure the exchange of trace gases between the land surface and the atmosphere. When using the so-called eddy-covariance method, certain corrections need to be applied to account for attenuation in the flux signal. These losses were found to be setup- and site-specific and can be up to 38 % for reactive nitrogen fluxes. We evaluated five different methods and recommend using an empirical version with locally measured cospectra.
Martin Kunz, Jost V. Lavric, Rainer Gasche, Christoph Gerbig, Richard H. Grant, Frank-Thomas Koch, Marcus Schumacher, Benjamin Wolf, and Matthias Zeeman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1671–1692,Short summary
The nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) budget method enables the quantification of gas fluxes between ecosystems and the atmosphere under nocturnal stable stratification, a condition under which standard approaches struggle. However, up to now the application of the NBL method has been limited by difficulties in obtaining the required measurements. We show how an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) equipped with a carbon dioxide analyser can make this method more accessible.
Marcus Striednig, Martin Graus, Tilmann D. Märk, and Thomas G. Karl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1447–1465,Short summary
The current work summarizes a long-term effort to provide an open-source code for the analysis of turbulent fluctuations of trace gases in the atmosphere by eddy covariance and disjunct eddy covariance, with a special focus on reactive gases that participate in atmospheric chemistry. The performance of the code is successfully evaluated based on measurements of minute fluxes of non-methane volatile organic compounds into the urban atmosphere.
Friedemann Reum, Mathias Göckede, Jost V. Lavric, Olaf Kolle, Sergey Zimov, Nikita Zimov, Martijn Pallandt, and Martin Heimann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5717–5740,Short summary
We present continuous in situ measurements of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 mole fractions at the new station Ambarchik, located in northeastern Siberia. We describe the site, measurements and quality control, characterize the signals in comparison with data from Barrow, Alaska, and show which regions the measurements are sensitive to. Ambarchik data are available upon request.
Nathan Hilker, Jonathan M. Wang, Cheol-Heon Jeong, Robert M. Healy, Uwayemi Sofowote, Jerzy Debosz, Yushan Su, Michael Noble, Anthony Munoz, Geoff Doerksen, Luc White, Céline Audette, Dennis Herod, Jeffrey R. Brook, and Greg J. Evans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5247–5261,Short summary
Increased interest in monitoring air quality near roadways, combined with traffic's often unclear contribution to elevated concentrations, has created a need for better interpretation of these data. Using 2 years of measurements collected during a near-road monitoring project in Canada, this paper contrasts three methods for estimating the fraction of roadside pollution resulting from on-road traffic. Robustness of these methods was compared with tandem measurements at background locations.
Sharad Vikram, Ashley Collier-Oxandale, Michael H. Ostertag, Massimiliano Menarini, Camron Chermak, Sanjoy Dasgupta, Tajana Rosing, Michael Hannigan, and William G. Griswold
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4211–4239,Short summary
Low-cost air quality sensors are enabling people to collect data to better understand their local environment and potential exposures. However, there is some concern regarding how reliable the calibrations of these sensors are in new and different environments. To explore this issue, our team colocated sensors at three different sites with high-quality monitoring instruments to compare to. We explored the transferability of calibration models as well as approaches to improve reliability.
Yanjun Zhang, Otso Peräkylä, Chao Yan, Liine Heikkinen, Mikko Äijälä, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Qiaozhi Zha, Matthieu Riva, Olga Garmash, Heikki Junninen, Pentti Paatero, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3761–3776,Short summary
Recent advancements in atmospheric mass spectrometry provide large amounts of new information but at the same time present considerable challenges for the data analysis, for example, in high-resolution peak identification and separation. To address these problems, this study presents a simple and novel method, which succeeds in analyzing both synthetic and ambient datasets. We believe it will become a powerful approach in the data analysis of mass spectra.
Cheng-Hsien Lin, Richard H. Grant, Albert J. Heber, and Cliff T. Johnston
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3403–3415,Short summary
The open-path FTIR (OP-FTIR) is often used to measure the atmospheric gas composition and concentrations. The OP-FTIR, however, is sensitive to the changed ambient factors, which likely led to quantitative biases. This study developed methods to minimize the effect of the ambient temperature and humidity on N2O/CO2 quantification. These methods can help the users who implement the OP-FTIR to estimate gas fluxes in the agroecosystem achieve more precise and accurate estimations.
David D. Parrish, Richard G. Derwent, Simon O'Doherty, and Peter G. Simmonds
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3383–3394,Short summary
We present a flexible method that employs a power series expansion and Fourier series analysis to characterize the average long-term change and seasonal cycle, respectively, from a time series of observations of a trace atmospheric species. This approach maximizes the statistically significant information derived, including non-linear aspects of the long-term trends, without over fitting the data. Generally, a small set of parameter values (e.g., 7 or 8) provides this characterization.
Martin Horbanski, Denis Pöhler, Johannes Lampel, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3365–3381,Short summary
ICAD allows a precise in situ measurement of gases like NO2 in a relatively simple and compact setup. The main advantage in comparison to most other optical methods is that it does not require a stable total light intensity. This allows a simpler and mobile instrument setup and additionally it features no observed cross-interferences. We validated the high quality for an ICAD NO2 instrument in different inter-comparisons with a detection limit of 0.02 ppbv.
Shuaixi Liang, Min Qin, Pinhua Xie, Jun Duan, Wu Fang, Yabai He, Jin Xu, Jingwei Liu, Xin Li, Ke Tang, Fanhao Meng, Kaidi Ye, Jianguo Liu, and Wenqing Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2499–2512,Short summary
A home-built instrument of an incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer is reported for sensitive detection of CHOCHO and NO2 in China's highly polluted environment. An NO2 spectral profile measured using the same spectrometer is applied as a reference spectral profile in the subsequent atmospheric spectral analysis and retrieval of NO2 and CHOCHO. This will provide an idea for solving the problem of cross-interference of strongly absorbing gases in weakly absorbing gases.
Angel J. Gomez-Pelaez, Ramon Ramos, Emilio Cuevas, Vanessa Gomez-Trueba, and Enrique Reyes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2043–2066,Short summary
In 2015, a CO2/CH4/CO CRDS was installed at Izaña station (Tenerife). We present the acceptance tests, the processing of raw data applied, the ambient measurements performed, and their comparison with other continuous in situ measurements. We determine linear relationships between flow rate, CRDS inlet pressure, and CRDS outlet valve aperture; a slight CO2 correction that takes into account changes in the inlet pressure/flow rate and its origin; and the H2O correction for CO in a novel way.
Thomas Foken, Wolfgang Babel, and Christoph Thomas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 971–976,Short summary
Recently reported trends of carbon dioxide uptake pose the question of whether trends may be the result of the limited digitalization of gas analysers and sonic anemometers used in the 1990s. Modifying a 12 bit digitalization and the instrument error reported for the R2 and R3 sonic anemometers found elsewhere, the influence of these deficits in comparison to the now commonly used 16 bit digitalization were quantified. Both issues have an effect only on trace gas fluxes of small magnitude.
Carl Malings, Rebecca Tanzer, Aliaksei Hauryliuk, Sriniwasa P. N. Kumar, Naomi Zimmerman, Levent B. Kara, Albert A. Presto, and R. Subramanian
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 903–920,Short summary
This paper compares several methods for calibrating data from low-cost air quality monitors to reflect the concentrations of various gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere, identifying the best-performing approaches. With these calibration methods, such monitors can be used to gather information on air quality at a higher spatial resolution than is possible using traditional technologies and can be deployed to areas (e.g. developing countries) where there are no existing monitor networks.
Ying Zhu, Ka Lok Chan, Yun Fat Lam, Martin Horbanski, Denis Pöhler, Johannes Boll, Ivo Lipkowitsch, Sheng Ye, and Mark Wenig
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6719–6734,Short summary
The paper presents an investigation of spatio-temporal variability of street-level NO2 in Hong Kong using mobile cavity-enhanced differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) and long-path DOAS. Measurements were conducted in December 2010 and March 2017. A significant decreasing trend in on-road NO2 was found by comparing measurements taken in 2010 and 2017. Influences of changes in bus companies' operation strategies can also be observed from the measured NO2 concentration maps.
Joanna Gordon Casey and Michael P. Hannigan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6351–6378,Short summary
Low-cost sensors have the potential to improve understanding of air quality in complex regions like oil and gas production basins. Regression methods have been used to quantify pollutants from sensor signals, but these methods have not been tested when sensors are moved to new sampling locations, away from model training locations. We use sensor data collected at multiple sites to test how well these field calibration methods perform when they are extended to new locations and times.
David W. T. Griffith
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6189–6201,Short summary
In recent years optical spectroscopic techniques have become commonly used in the determination of mole fractions of trace gases in air. These techniques in many cases determine the mole fractions of only individual isotopic variants (
isotopologues) of the trace gas, while for many applications the total mole fraction of all isotopologues is required. This paper sets out the measurements and calculations required to convert between individual isotopologue and total trace gas amounts.
Leena Järvi, Üllar Rannik, Tom V. Kokkonen, Mona Kurppa, Ari Karppinen, Rostislav D. Kouznetsov, Pekka Rantala, Timo Vesala, and Curtis R. Wood
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5421–5438,Short summary
Identical EC systems on two sides of a building in central Helsinki were used to assess the uncertainty of the vertical fluxes on the single measurement point from July 2013 to September 2015. Sampling at only one point yielded up to 12% underestimation in the cumulative carbon fluxes; for sensible and latent heat the respective values were up to 5 and 8%. The commonly used statistics, kurtosis and skewness, are not necessarily suitable for filtering out data in a densely built urban area.
Anna Maria Siani, Francesca Frasca, Francesco Scarlatti, Arianna Religi, Henri Diémoz, Giuseppe R. Casale, Massimiliano Pedone, and Volodya Savastiouk
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5105–5123,Short summary
Total ozone columns (TOCs) measured by Brewer spectrophotometers located at Rome and Aosta (Italy) were calculated using different processing software packages, and the differences in the TOC retrievals are investigated. Large differences in TOC retrievals can be experienced when the instrumental sensitivity exhibits a long-term drift. The variability in TOC retrievals depends on the algorithm for calculating the standard lamp correction.
Anna Vaskuri, Petri Kärhä, Luca Egli, Julian Gröbner, and Erkki Ikonen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3595–3610,Short summary
In this work, we introduce a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis that takes into account possible systematic spectral deviations in the atmospheric full spectrum ozone retrieval method. Accounting for possible systematic spectral deviations in the spectral data is important since they produce larger total ozone column uncertainties than uncorrelated noise-like variations that traditional uncertainty estimations predict.
Abdelhadi El Yazidi, Michel Ramonet, Philippe Ciais, Gregoire Broquet, Isabelle Pison, Amara Abbaris, Dominik Brunner, Sebastien Conil, Marc Delmotte, Francois Gheusi, Frederic Guerin, Lynn Hazan, Nesrine Kachroudi, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Leonard Rivier, and Dominique Serça
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1599–1614,
Caroline B. Alden, Subhomoy Ghosh, Sean Coburn, Colm Sweeney, Anna Karion, Robert Wright, Ian Coddington, Gregory B. Rieker, and Kuldeep Prasad
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1565–1582,Short summary
The location and sizing leaks of methane from natural gas operations poses a real challenge for greenhouse gas emission mitigation efforts and for accurate quantification of emissions inventories. We demonstrate, with synthetic and field tests, a new statistical method for the location and sizing of small trace gas point sources dispersed over large areas, based on measurements of ambient atmospheric conditions made with long-range, open-path laser-based atmospheric observations.
Ye Yuan, Ludwig Ries, Hannes Petermeier, Martin Steinbacher, Angel J. Gómez-Peláez, Markus C. Leuenberger, Marcus Schumacher, Thomas Trickl, Cedric Couret, Frank Meinhardt, and Annette Menzel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1501–1514,Short summary
This paper presents a novel statistical method, ADVS, for baseline selection of representative CO2 data at elevated mountain measurement stations. It provides insights on how data processing techniques are critical for measurements and data analyses. Compared with other statistical methods, our method appears to be a good option as a generalized approach with improved comparability, which is important for research on measurement site characteristics and comparisons between stations.
Naomi Zimmerman, Albert A. Presto, Sriniwasa P. N. Kumar, Jason Gu, Aliaksei Hauryliuk, Ellis S. Robinson, Allen L. Robinson, and R. Subramanian
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 291–313,Short summary
Low-cost sensors promise neighborhood-scale air quality monitoring but have been plagued by inconsistent performance for precision, accuracy, and drift. CMU and SenSevere collaborated to develop the RAMP, which uses electrochemical sensors. We present a machine learning algorithm that overcomes previous performance issues and meets US EPA's data quality recommendations for personal exposure for NO2 and tougher "supplemental monitoring" standards for CO & ozone across 19 RAMPs for several months.
Jesse L. Ambrose
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 5063–5073,Short summary
Scientific understanding of environmental Hg cycling is limited by analytical uncertainties. To better characterize analytical uncertainty associated with Hg measurements made with the Tekran® 2537 instrument, I developed new software-based methods for offline processing of the raw instrumental data. I demonstrate significant uncertainty associated with the Tekran® method. By comparison, my methods improve measurement accuracy and the Hg detection limit by as much as 95 % and 88 %, respectively.
Hannah Sonderfeld, Hartmut Bösch, Antoine P. R. Jeanjean, Stuart N. Riddick, Grant Allen, Sébastien Ars, Stewart Davies, Neil Harris, Neil Humpage, Roland Leigh, and Joseph Pitt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3931–3946,Short summary
The waste sector is the second largest source of methane in the UK. However, uncertainties of methane emissions from landfill sites still remain. In this study we present a new approach for the estimation of methane emissions from a landfill site by applying a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for precise measurements of methane with in situ Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Different source areas could be distinguished with this method and their emissions were assessed.
Katharina Gerdel, Felix Maximilian Spielmann, Albin Hammerle, and Georg Wohlfahrt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3525–3537,
Stephen Conley, Ian Faloona, Shobhit Mehrotra, Maxime Suard, Donald H. Lenschow, Colm Sweeney, Scott Herndon, Stefan Schwietzke, Gabrielle Pétron, Justin Pifer, Eric A. Kort, and Russell Schnell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3345–3358,Short summary
This paper describes a new method of quantifying surface trace gas emissions (e.g. methane) from small aircraft (e.g. Mooney, Cessna) in about 30 min. This technique greatly enhances our ability to rapidly respond in the event of catastrophic failures such as Aliso Canyon and Deep Water Horizon.
Mathias Hoffmann, Maximilian Schulz-Hanke, Juana Garcia Alba, Nicole Jurisch, Ulrike Hagemann, Torsten Sachs, Michael Sommer, and Jürgen Augustin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 109–118,Short summary
Processes driving production and transport of CH4 in wetlands are complex. We present an algorithm to separate open-water automatic chamber CH4 fluxes into diffusion and ebullition. This helps to reveal dynamics, identify drivers and obtain reliable CH4 emissions. The algorithm is based on sudden concentration changes during single measurements. A variable filter is applied using a multiple of the interquartile range. The algorithm was verified for data of a rewetted former fen grassland site.
Eleonora Aruffo, Fabio Biancofiore, Piero Di Carlo, Marcella Busilacchio, Marco Verdecchia, Barbara Tomassetti, Cesare Dari-Salisburgo, Franco Giammaria, Stephane Bauguitte, James Lee, Sarah Moller, James Hopkins, Shalini Punjabi, Stephen J. Andrews, Alistair C. Lewis, Paul I. Palmer, Edward Hyer, Michael Le Breton, and Carl Percival
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5591–5606,Short summary
During the BORTAS aircraft campaign, we measured NO2 and their oxidtation products (as peroxy nitrates) with a custom laser-induced fluorescence instrument. Because of the high correlation between known pyrogenic tracers (i.e., carbon monoxide) and peroxy nitrates, we provide two methods to use these species for the identification of biomass burning (BB) plumes. Using an artifical neural network, we improved the BB identification taking into account of a meteorological parameter (pressure).
Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Nelly A. M. Uitslag, Mark S. Zahniser, David D. Nelson, Stephen A. Montzka, and Huilin Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5293–5314,Short summary
The accuracy of carbon models, used for the prediction of global climate change, is limited by the knowledge of the uptake of carbon by plants through photosynthesis. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has been suggested as a tracer for this process. To be able to further explore and verify the application of this novel tracer we have tested a laser spectrometer for its suitability to obtain accurate and high precision measurements of COS and CO2 with both laboratory experiments and field measurements.
Üllar Rannik, Olli Peltola, and Ivan Mammarella
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5163–5181,Short summary
We review available methods for the random error estimation of turbulent fluxes that are widely used by the flux community. Flux errors are evaluated theoretically as well as via numerical calculations by using measured and simulated records. We recommend two flux random errors with clear physical meaning: the total error resulting from stochastic nature of turbulence, well approximated by the method of Finkelstein and Sims (2001), and the error of the flux due to the instrumental noise.
Ivan Mammarella, Olli Peltola, Annika Nordbo, Leena Järvi, and Üllar Rannik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4915–4933,Short summary
In this study we have performed an inter-comparison between EddyUH and EddyPro, two public and commonly used software packages for eddy covariance data processing and calculation. The aims are to estimate the flux uncertainty due to the use of different software packages, and to assess the most critical processing steps, determining the largest deviations in the calculated fluxes. We focus not only on water vapour and carbon dioxide fluxes, but also on the methane flux.
Julio A. Castro-Almazán, Gabriel Pérez-Jordán, and Casiana Muñoz-Tuñón
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4759–4781,Short summary
Water vapour is the main responsible for the atmospheric extinction in astronomical observations in different bands. One of the most common and accurate techniques to measure it are the radiosoundings. A method to estimate the error and the optimum number of sampled levels is proposed, considering the uncertainties and the leakage in sampling, based on data from Roque de los Muchachos Observ. and Guimar (Canary Is., Spain), Lindenberg (Germany) and Ny-Ålesund (Norway). The median error is 2.0 %.
Lynn Hazan, Jérôme Tarniewicz, Michel Ramonet, Olivier Laurent, and Amara Abbaris
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4719–4736,Short summary
The ATC automatically processes atmospheric greenhouse gases mole fractions of data sent daily by the ICOS network, this includes calibration and water vapor corrections. Data are stored in a database which has been developed with an emphasis on traceability. Instrument calibration and manual quality control lead to automatic revaluation of the mole fractions calculated in near-real time. Calibration corrections avoid artificial gradients between sites that could lead to error in flux estimates.
Alessandro Cescatti, Barbara Marcolla, Ignacio Goded, and Carsten Gruening
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4665–4672,Short summary
Multi-point monitoring systems are required to measure atmospheric gas concentrations at tall towers and eddy covariance sites. The use of buffer volumes can reduce the uncertainty due to the discrete temporal sampling. We propose a processing scheme that accounts for the fraction of signal built up in the averaging period and reduces the error up to 80 % compared to the standard setup. A relationship is derived to estimate the optimal volume size given the specifications of the sampling system.
Alan D. Griffiths, Scott D. Chambers, Alastair G. Williams, and Sylvester Werczynski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2689–2707,Short summary
Surface-based two-filter radon detectors monitor the ambient concentration of atmospheric radon-222, a natural tracer of mixing and transport. They are sensitive, but respond slowly to ambient changes in radon concentration. In this paper, a deconvolution method is used to successfully correct observations for the instrument response. Case studies demonstrate that it is beneficial, sometimes necessary, to account for the detector response, especially when studying near-surface mixing.
Youwen Sun, Cheng Liu, Pinhua Xie, Andreas Hartl, Kalok Chan, Yuan Tian, Wei Wang, Min Qin, Jianguo Liu, and Wenqing Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1167–1180,Short summary
SO2 variability over a large concentration range and interferences from other gases have been major limitations in industrial SO2 emission monitoring. This study demonstrates accurate industrial SO2 emission monitoring through a portable multichannel gas analyzer with an optimized retrieval algorithm. The developed instrument shows good performance in both the linear and nonlinear ranges.
Y. Xiang, Y. Tang, and W. Zhu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 347–357,Short summary
Motivated by unreliable sensor readings and the difficulties in calibrating sensors, we developed a Bayesian-network-based method to remove the abnormal readings and re-calibrate the sensors.
S. X. Fang, P. P. Tans, M. Steinbacher, L. X. Zhou, and T. Luan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5301–5313,Short summary
The identification of atmospheric CO2 observation data which are minimally influenced by very local emissions/removals is essential for trend analysis and for the estimation of regional sources and sinks. We compared four data filtering regimes based on the observation records at Lin'an station in China, and found that the use of meteorological parameters was the most favorable. This conclusion will aid regional data selection at the Lin'an station.
A. Bailey, D. Noone, M. Berkelhammer, H. C. Steen-Larsen, and P. Sato
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4521–4538,Short summary
This study evaluates the long-term stability of concentration-dependent and drift-induced biases in three water vapor isotopic analyzers deployed at two remote field sites. Despite limited data at low humidity and measurement hysteresis, inaccuracies in the concentration-dependence characterization are small, and the bias shows no change with isotope ratio or directional drift. Changes in measurement repeatability that are not characterized by linear drift estimates are a larger source of error.
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Despite extensive research, emission detection and quantification of greenhouse gases (GHGs) remain an open problem. This article presents a novel statistical framework for detecting and quantifying methane emissions and showcases its efficacy on data collected from different instruments in the 2015 Ginninderra controlled-release experiment. The developed techniques can be used to aid GHG emission reduction schemes by, for example, detecting and quantifying leaks from carbon storage facilities.
Despite extensive research, emission detection and quantification of greenhouse gases (GHGs)...