Articles | Volume 7, issue 7
Research article 22 Jul 2014
Research article | 22 Jul 2014
The added value of a visible channel to a geostationary thermal infrared instrument to monitor ozone for air quality
E. Hache et al.
No articles found.
Yann Cohen, Virginie Marécal, Béatrice Josse, and Valérie Thouret
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2659–2689,Short summary
Assessing long-term chemistry–climate simulations with in situ and frequent observations near the tropopause is possible with the IAGOS commercial aircraft data set. This study presents a method that distributes the IAGOS data (ozone and CO) on a monthly model grid, limiting the impact of resolution for the evaluation of the modelled chemical fields. We applied it to the CCMI REF-C1SD simulation from the MOCAGE CTM and notably highlighted well-reproduced O3 behaviour in the lower stratosphere.
Irene Bartolome Garcia, Reinhold Spang, Jörn Ungermann, Sabine Griessbach, Martina Krämer, Michael Höpfner, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3153–3168,Short summary
Cirrus clouds contribute to the general radiation budget of the Earth. Measuring optically thin clouds is challenging but the IR limb sounder GLORIA possesses the necessary technical characteristics to make it possible. This study analyses data from the WISE campaign obtained with GLORIA. We developed a cloud detection method and derived characteristics of the observed cirrus-like cloud top, cloud bottom or position with respect to the tropopause.
Alexander Vasilkov, Nickolay Krotkov, Eun-Su Yang, Lok Lamsal, Joanna Joiner, Patricia Castellanos, Zachary Fasnacht, and Robert Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2857–2871,Short summary
To explicitly account for aerosol effects in the OMI cloud and nitrogen dioxide algorithms, we use a model of aerosol optical properties from a global aerosol assimilation system and radiative transfer computations. Accounting for anisotropic reflection of Earth's surface is an important feature of the approach. Comparisons of the cloud and tropospheric nitrogen dioxide retrievals with implicit and explicit aerosol corrections are carried out for a selected area with high pollution.
Matthias Schneider, Benjamin Ertl, Christopher J. Diekmann, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Andreas Weber, Frank Hase, Michael Höpfner, Omaira E. García, Eliezer Sepúlveda, and Douglas Kinnison
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
We present atmospheric H2O, HDO / H2O ratio, N2O, CH4 and HNO3 data generated by the MUSICA IASI processor using thermal nadir spectra measured by the IASI satellite instrument. The data have a global daily coverage and are available for the period between October 2014 and April 2020. Multiple possibilities of data reuse are offered, by providing each individual data product together with information about retrieval settings and the products' uncertainty and vertical representativeness.
Matthieu Plu, Barbara Scherllin-Pirscher, Delia Arnold Arias, Rocio Baro, Guillaume Bigeard, Luca Bugliaro, Ana Carvalho, Laaziz El Amraoui, Kurt Eschbacher, Marcus Hirtl, Christian Maurer, Marie Mulder, Dennis Piontek, Lennart Robertson, Carl-Herbert Rokitansky, Fritz Zobl, and Raimund Zopp
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for NHESSShort summary
Past volcanic eruptions that spread out ash over large areas, like Eyjafjallajökull in 2010, forced to cancel thousands of flights and have huge economic consequences. In this article, an international team in the H2020 EU-funded EUNADICS-AV project has designed a probabilistic model approach to quantify the ash concentrations, evaluates it against measurements and discusses its potential use to mitigate the impact of future large-scale eruptions.
Juseon Bak, Xiong Liu, Robert Spurr, Kai Yang, Caroline R. Nowlan, Christopher Chan Miller, Gonzalo Gonzalez Abad, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2659–2672,Short summary
We apply a principal component analysis (PCA)-based approach combined with lookup tables (LUTs) of corrections to accelerate the VLIDORT radiative transfer (RT) model used in the retrieval of ozone profiles from backscattered ultraviolet (UV) measurements by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI).
Matthieu Plu, Guillaume Bigeard, Bojan Sič, Emanuele Emili, Luca Bugliaro, Laaziz El Amraoui, Jonathan Guth, Beatrice Josse, Lucia Mona, and Dennis Piontek
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for NHESSShort summary
Past volcanic eruptions that spread out ash over large areas, like Eyjafjallajökull in 2010, forced to cancel thousands of flights and have huge economic consequences. In this article, we demonstrate that source term improvement and the assimilation of ground-based lidar data can have a beneficial impact for quantifying ash concentrations over Europe. The work was supported by the EUNADICS-AV project.
Zhao-Cheng Zeng, Vijay Natraj, Feng Xu, Sihe Chen, Fang-Ying Gong, Thomas J. Pongetti, Keeyoon Sung, Geoffrey Toon, Stanley P. Sander, and Yuk L. Yung
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Large carbon source regions such as megacities are also typically associated with heavy aerosol loading, which introduces uncertainties in the retrieval of greenhouse gases from reflected and scattered sunlight measurements. In this study, we developed a full physics algorithm to retrieve greenhouse gases in the presence of aerosols and demonstrated its performance by retrieving CO2 and CH4 columns from remote sensing measurements in the Los Angeles megacity.
Amir H. Souri, Kelly Chance, Juseon Bak, Caroline R. Nowlan, Gonzalo González Abad, Yeonjin Jung, David C. Wong, Jingqiu Mao, and Xiong Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The global pandemic is believed to have an impulsive impact on emissions of air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO). This study rigorously quantifies the changes in the amount of NOx and VOC emissions via state-of-the-art inverse modeling technique using satellite observations during the lockdown 2020 with respect to a baseline over Europe, which in turn, it permits unraveling atmospheric processes being responsible for ozone formation.
Robert Wagner, Baptiste Testa, Michael Höpfner, Alexei Kiselev, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Jörn Ungermann, and Thomas Leisner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1977–1991,Short summary
During the Asian summer monsoon period, air pollutants are transported from layers near the ground to high altitudes of 13 to 18 km in the atmosphere. Infrared measurements have shown that particles composed of solid ammonium nitrate are a major part of these pollutants. To enable the quantitative analysis of the infrared spectra, we have determined for the first time accurate optical constants of ammonium nitrate for the low-temperature conditions of the upper atmosphere.
Iris-Amata Dion, Cyrille Dallet, Philippe Ricaud, Fabien Carminati, Thibaut Dauhut, and Peter Haynes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2191–2210,Short summary
Ice in the tropopause has a strong radiative effect on climate. The amount of ice injected (∆IWC) up to the tropical tropopause layer has been shown to be the highest over the Maritime Continent (MC), a region that includes Indonesia. ∆IWC is studied over islands and sea of the MC. Space-borne observations of ice, precipitation and lightning are used to estimate ∆IWC and are compared to ∆IWC estimated from the ERA5 reanalyses. It is shown that Java is the area of the greatest ∆IWC over the MC.
Susan S. Kulawik, John R. Worden, Vivienne H. Payne, Dejian Fu, Steven C. Wofsy, Kathryn McKain, Colm Sweeney, Bruce C. Daube Jr., Alan Lipton, Igor Polonsky, Yuguang He, Karen E. Cady-Pereira, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Daniel J. Jacob, and Yi Yin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 335–354,Short summary
This paper shows comparisons of a new single-footprint methane product from the AIRS satellite to aircraft-based observations. We show that this AIRS methane product provides useful information to study seasonal and global methane trends of this important greenhouse gas.
Carly Staebell, Kang Sun, Jenna Samra, Jonathan Franklin, Christopher Chan Miller, Xiong Liu, Eamon Conway, Kelly Chance, Scott Milligan, and Steven Wofsy
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMT
Jianfeng Li, Yuhang Wang, Ruixiong Zhang, Charles Smeltzer, Andrew Weinheimer, Jay Herman, K. Folkert Boersma, Edward A. Celarier, Russell W. Long, James J. Szykman, Ruben Delgado, Anne M. Thompson, Travis N. Knepp, Lok N. Lamsal, Scott J. Janz, Matthew G. Kowalewski, Xiong Liu, and Caroline R. Nowlan
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Comprehensive evaluations of simulated diurnal cycles of NO2 and NOy concentrations, vertical profiles, and tropospheric vertical column densities at two different resolutions with various measurements during the DISCOVER-AQ 2011 campaign show the reasonability of the National Emission Inventory 2011 NOx emissions at coarser resolutions but potential distribution biases at 4-km resolution, providing another possible explanation for the overestimation of model results at high resolutions.
Jianglong Zhang, Robert J. D. Spurr, Jeffrey S. Reid, Peng Xian, Peter R. Colarco, James R. Campbell, Edward J. Hyer, and Nancy L. Baker
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 27–42,Short summary
A first-of-its-kind scheme has been developed for assimilating Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index (AI) measurements into the Naval Aerosol Analysis and Predictive System. Improvements in model simulations demonstrate the utility of OMI AI data assimilation for improving the accuracy of aerosol model analysis over cloudy regions and bright surfaces. This study can be considered one of the first attempts at direct radiance assimilation in the UV spectrum for aerosol analyses.
Jörn Ungermann, Irene Bartolome, Sabine Griessbach, Reinhold Spang, Christian Rolf, Martina Krämer, Michael Höpfner, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 7025–7045,Short summary
This study examines the potential of new IR limb imager instruments and tomographic methods for cloud detection purposes. Simple color-ratio-based methods are examined and compared against more involved nonlinear convex optimization. In a second part, 3-D measurements of the airborne limb sounder GLORIA taken during the Wave-driven ISentropic Exchange campaign are used to exemplarily derive the location and extent of small-scale cirrus clouds with high spatial accuracy.
Robert R. Nelson, Annmarie Eldering, David Crisp, Aronne J. Merrelli, and Christopher W. O'Dell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6889–6899,Short summary
Measurements of surface wind speed over oceans are scientifically useful. Here we show that the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2), originally designed to measure carbon dioxide using reflected sunlight, can also accurately and precisely measure wind speed. OCO-2's high spatial resolution means that it can observe close to coastlines and therefore be used to study coastal wind processes and inform related economic sectors.
Yunxia Huang, Vijay Natraj, Zhao-Cheng Zeng, Pushkar Kopparla, and Yuk L. Yung
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6755–6769,Short summary
As a greenhouse gas with strong global warming potential, atmospheric methane emissions have attracted a great deal of attention. However, accurate assessment of these emissions is challenging in the presence of atmospheric particulates called aerosols. We quantify the aerosol impact on methane quantification from airborne measurements using two techniques, one that has traditionally been used by the imaging spectroscopy community and the other commonly employed in trace gas remote sensing.
Gerald Wetzel, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Norbert Glatthor, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Thomas Gulde, Michael Höpfner, Sören Johansson, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Anne Kleinert, Erik Kretschmer, Guido Maucher, Hans Nordmeyer, Hermann Oelhaf, Johannes Orphal, Christof Piesch, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Jörn Ungermann, and Bärbel Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Measurements of the pollutants C2H6, C2H2, HCOOH, and PAN were performed in the North Atlantic UTLS region with the airborne limb imager GLORIA in 2017. Enhanced amounts of these species were detected in the upper troposphere and even in the lowermost stratosphere (PAN). Main sources of these gases are forest fires in North America and anthropogenic pollution in South Asia. Simulations of EMAC and CAMS are qualitatively able to reproduce the measured data but underestimate the absolute amounts.
Wolfgang Woiwode, Andreas Dörnbrack, Inna Polichtchouk, Sören Johansson, Ben Harvey, Michael Höpfner, Jörn Ungermann, and Felix Friedl-Vallon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15379–15387,Short summary
The lowermost-stratosphere moist bias in ECMWF analyses and 12 h forecasts is diagnosed for the Arctic winter-spring 2016 period by using two-dimensional GLORIA water vapor observations. The bias is already present in the initial conditions (i.e., the analyses), and sensitivity forecasts on time scales of < 12 h show hardly any sensitivity to modified spatial resolution and output frequency.
Sören Johansson, Michael Höpfner, Oliver Kirner, Ingo Wohltmann, Silvia Bucci, Bernard Legras, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Norbert Glatthor, Erik Kretschmer, Jörn Ungermann, and Gerald Wetzel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14695–14715,Short summary
We present high-resolution measurements of pollutant trace gases (PAN, C2H2, and HCOOH) in the Asian monsoon UTLS from the airborne limb imager GLORIA during StratoClim 2017. Enhancements are observed up to 16 km altitude, and PAN and C2H2 even up to 18 km. Two atmospheric models, CAMS and EMAC, reproduce the pollutant's large-scale structures but not finer structures. Convection is investigated using backward trajectories of the models ATLAS and TRACZILLA with advanced detection of convection.
Can Li, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Peter J. T. Leonard, Simon Carn, Joanna Joiner, Robert J. D. Spurr, and Alexander Vasilkov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6175–6191,Short summary
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important pollutant that causes haze and acid rain. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has been providing global observation of SO2 from space for over 15 years. In this paper, we introduce a new OMI SO2 dataset for global pollution monitoring. The dataset better accounts for the influences of different factors such as location and sun and satellite angles, leading to improved data quality. The new OMI SO2 dataset is publicly available through NASA's data center.
Juseon Bak, Xiong Liu, Manfred Birk, Georg Wagner, Iouli E. Gordon, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5845–5854,Short summary
This paper evaluates different sets of high-resolution ozone absorption cross-section data for use in atmospheric ozone profile measurements in the Hartley and Huggins bands with a particular focus on BDM 1995 (Daumont et al. 1992; Brion et al., 1993; Malicet et al., 1995) currently used in our retrievals and a new laboratory dataset by Birk and Wagner (BW) (2018).
Lei Zhu, Gonzalo González Abad, Caroline R. Nowlan, Christopher Chan Miller, Kelly Chance, Eric C. Apel, Joshua P. DiGangi, Alan Fried, Thomas F. Hanisco, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Lu Hu, Jennifer Kaiser, Frank N. Keutsch, Wade Permar, Jason M. St. Clair, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12329–12345,Short summary
We develop a validation platform for satellite HCHO retrievals using in situ observations from 12 aircraft campaigns. The platform offers an alternative way to quickly assess systematic biases in HCHO satellite products over large domains and long periods, facilitating optimization of retrieval settings and the minimization of retrieval biases. Application to the NASA operational HCHO product indicates that relative biases range from −44.5 % to +112.1 % depending on locations and seasons.
Nikita M. Fedkin, Can Li, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Pascal Hedelt, Diego G. Loyola, Russell R. Dickerson, and Robert Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The motivation for conducting this study was to produce a fast and efficient algorithm for retrieving the height of a volcanic sulfur dioxide plume from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). We used a machine learning approach that included neural networks, along with a simulated spectral dataset generated from a radiative transfer model. We tested the retrieval on four volcanic eruption cases; the initial results were promising and had good agreement with other studies and datasets.
Laaziz El Amraoui, Bojan Sič, Andrea Piacentini, Virginie Marécal, Nicolas Frebourg, and Jean-Luc Attié
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4645–4667,Short summary
The aim of this paper is to present the assimilation of lidar observations from the CALIOP instrument onboard the CALIPSO satellite in the chemistry-transport model of Météo-France, MOCAGE. We presented the first results of the assimilation of the extinction coefficient observations of the CALIOP lidar instrument during the pre-ChArMEx-TRAQA field campaign. We evaluated the added value of the assimilation product to better document a desert dust transport event compared to the model free run.
Xiao Lu, Lin Zhang, Tongwen Wu, Michael S. Long, Jun Wang, Daniel J. Jacob, Fang Zhang, Jie Zhang, Sebastian D. Eastham, Lu Hu, Lei Zhu, Xiong Liu, and Min Wei
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3817–3838,Short summary
This study presents the development and evaluation of a new climate chemistry model, BCC-GEOS-Chem v1.0, which couples the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as an atmospheric chemistry component in the Beijing Climate Center atmospheric general circulation model. A 3-year (2012–2014) simulation of BCC-GEOS-Chem v1.0 shows that the model captures well the spatiotemporal distributions of tropospheric ozone, other gaseous pollutants, and aerosols.
Eamon K. Conway, Iouli E. Gordon, Jonathan Tennyson, Oleg L. Polyansky, Sergei N. Yurchenko, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10015–10027,Short summary
Water vapour has a complex spectrum and absorbs from the microwave to the near-UV where it dissociates. There is limited knowledge of the absorption features in the near-UV, and there is a large disagreement for the available models and experiments. We created a new ab initio model that is in good agreement with observation at 363 nm. At lower wavelengths, our calculations suggest that the latest experiments overestimate absorption. This has implications for trace gas retrievals in the near-UV.
Amir H. Souri, Caroline R. Nowlan, Gonzalo González Abad, Lei Zhu, Donald R. Blake, Alan Fried, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Armin Wisthaler, Jung-Hun Woo, Qiang Zhang, Christopher E. Chan Miller, Xiong Liu, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9837–9854,Short summary
For the first time, we provide a joint nonlinear optimal estimate of NOx and NMVOC emissions during the KORUS-AQ campaign by simultaneously incorporating SAO's new product of HCHO columns from OMPS and OMI tropospheric NO2 columns into a regional model. Results demonstrate a promising improvement in the performance of the model in terms of HCHO and NO2 concentrations, which in turn enables us to quantify the impact of the emission changes on different pathways of ozone formation and loss.
Mengyao Liu, Jintai Lin, Hao Kong, K. Folkert Boersma, Henk Eskes, Yugo Kanaya, Qin He, Xin Tian, Kai Qin, Pinhua Xie, Robert Spurr, Ruijing Ni, Yingying Yan, Hongjian Weng, and Jingxu Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4247–4259,Short summary
Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) are important air pollutants in the troposphere and play crucial roles in the formation of ozone and particulate matter. The recently launched TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) provides an opportunity to retrieve tropospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at an unprecedented high horizontal resolution. This work presents a new NO2 retrieval product over East Asia and further quantifies key factors affecting the retrieval, including aerosol.
Martin Cussac, Virginie Marécal, Valérie Thouret, Béatrice Josse, and Bastien Sauvage
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9393–9417,Short summary
Biomass burning emissions are a major source of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere. Here, the vertical transport that these emissions can undergo until the upper troposphere is investigated, as well as their contribution to carbon monoxide concentrations. It was found that boreal forest emissions were specific to the occurrence of pyroconvection directly above the fires, whereas biomass burning emissions from other regions of the globe relied more on the occurrence of deep convection.
Rocco Sedona, Lars Hoffmann, Reinhold Spang, Gabriele Cavallaro, Sabine Griessbach, Michael Höpfner, Matthias Book, and Morris Riedel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3661–3682,Short summary
Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) play a key role in polar ozone depletion in the stratosphere. In this paper, we explore the potential of applying machine learning (ML) methods to classify PSC observations of infrared spectra to classify PSC types. ML methods have proved to reach results in line with those obtained using well-established approaches. Among the considered ML methods, random forest (RF) seems to be the most promising one, being able to produce explainable classification results.
Olivier Coopmann, Vincent Guidard, Nadia Fourrié, Béatrice Josse, and Virginie Marécal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2659–2680,Short summary
The objective of this paper is to make a new selection of IASI channels by taking into account inter-channel observation-error correlations. Our selection further reduces the analysis error by 3 % in temperature, 1.8 % in humidity and 0.9 % in ozone compared to Collard’s selection, when using the same number of channels. A selection of 400 IASI channels is proposed at the end of the paper which is able to further reduce analysis errors.
Robert L. Herman, John Worden, David Noone, Dean Henze, Kevin Bowman, Karen Cady-Pereira, Vivienne H. Payne, Susan S. Kulawik, and Dejian Fu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1825–1834,Short summary
This study is the first assessment and validation of AIRS HDO / H2O retrieved by optimal estimation. Initial comparisons with in situ measurements from NASA ORACLES are promising: the small bias and consistent rms of AIRS suggest that AIRS has well-characterized HDO / H2O. This analysis opens the possibility of a new 17-year long-term data record of global tropospheric HDO / H2O measured from space.
Philippe Ricaud, Massimo Del Guasta, Eric Bazile, Niramson Azouz, Angelo Lupi, Pierre Durand, Jean-Luc Attié, Dana Veron, Vincent Guidard, and Paolo Grigioni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4167–4191,Short summary
Thin (~ 100 m) supercooled liquid water (SLW, water staying in liquid phase below 0 °C) clouds have been detected, analysed, and modelled over the Dome C (Concordia, Antarctica) station during the austral summer 2018–2019 using observations and meteorological analyses. The SLW clouds were observed at the top of the planetary boundary layer and the SLW content was always strongly underestimated by the model indicating an incorrect simulation of the surface energy budget of the Antarctic Plateau.
Clara Orbe, David A. Plummer, Darryn W. Waugh, Huang Yang, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas E. Kinnison, Beatrice Josse, Virginie Marecal, Makoto Deushi, Nathan Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip Dhomse, Wuhu Feng, and Slimane Bekki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3809–3840,Short summary
Atmospheric composition is strongly influenced by global-scale winds that are not always properly simulated in computer models. A common approach to correct for this bias is to relax or
nudgeto the observed winds. Here we systematically evaluate how well this technique performs across a large suite of chemistry–climate models in terms of its ability to reproduce key aspects of both the tropospheric and stratospheric circulations.
Julie M. Nicely, Bryan N. Duncan, Thomas F. Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Ross J. Salawitch, Makoto Deushi, Amund S. Haslerud, Patrick Jöckel, Béatrice Josse, Douglas E. Kinnison, Andrew Klekociuk, Michael E. Manyin, Virginie Marécal, Olaf Morgenstern, Lee T. Murray, Gunnar Myhre, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, Andrea Pozzer, Ilaria Quaglia, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Susan Strahan, Simone Tilmes, Holger Tost, Daniel M. Westervelt, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1341–1361,Short summary
Differences in methane lifetime among global models are large and poorly understood. We use a neural network method and simulations from the Chemistry Climate Model Initiative to quantify the factors influencing methane lifetime spread among models and variations over time. UV photolysis, tropospheric ozone, and nitrogen oxides drive large model differences, while the same factors plus specific humidity contribute to a decreasing trend in methane lifetime between 1980 and 2015.
Samuel Quesada-Ruiz, Jean-Luc Attié, William A. Lahoz, Rachid Abida, Philippe Ricaud, Laaziz El Amraoui, Régina Zbinden, Andrea Piacentini, Mathieu Joly, Henk Eskes, Arjo Segers, Lyana Curier, Johan de Haan, Jukka Kujanpää, Albert Christiaan Plechelmus Oude Nijhuis, Johanna Tamminen, Renske Timmermans, and Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 131–152,
Le Kuai, Kevin W. Bowman, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Makoto Deushi, Laura Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Fabien Paulot, Sarah Strode, Andrew Conley, Jean-François Lamarque, Patrick Jöckel, David A. Plummer, Luke D. Oman, Helen Worden, Susan Kulawik, David Paynter, Andrea Stenke, and Markus Kunze
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 281–301,Short summary
The tropospheric ozone increase from pre-industrial to the present day leads to a radiative forcing. The top-of-atmosphere outgoing fluxes at the ozone band are controlled by ozone, water vapor, and temperature. We demonstrate a method to attribute the models’ flux biases to these key players using satellite-constrained instantaneous radiative kernels. The largest spread between models is found in the tropics, mainly driven by ozone and then water vapor.
Zachary Fasnacht, Alexander Vasilkov, David Haffner, Wenhan Qin, Joanna Joiner, Nickolay Krotkov, Andrew M. Sayer, and Robert Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6749–6769,Short summary
The anisotropy of Earth's surface reflection plays an important role in satellite-based retrievals of cloud, aerosol, and trace gases. Most current ultraviolet and visible satellite retrievals utilize climatological surface reflectivity databases that do not account for surface anisotropy. The GLER concept was introduced to account for such features. Here we evaluate GLER for water surfaces by comparing with OMI measurements and show that it captures these surface anisotropy features.
Yuanhong Zhao, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Xin Lin, Antoine Berchet, Michaela I. Hegglin, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Didier A. Hauglustaine, Sophie Szopa, Ann R. Stavert, Nathan Luke Abraham, Alex T. Archibald, Slimane Bekki, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Béatrice Josse, Douglas Kinnison, Ole Kirner, Virginie Marécal, Fiona M. O'Connor, David A. Plummer, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Sarah Strode, Simone Tilmes, Edward J. Dlugokencky, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13701–13723,Short summary
The role of hydroxyl radical changes in methane trends is debated, hindering our understanding of the methane cycle. This study quantifies how uncertainties in the hydroxyl radical may influence methane abundance in the atmosphere based on the inter-model comparison of hydroxyl radical fields and model simulations of CH4 abundance with different hydroxyl radical scenarios during 2000–2016. We show that hydroxyl radical changes could contribute up to 54 % of model-simulated methane biases.
Marleen Braun, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Wolfgang Woiwode, Sören Johansson, Michael Höpfner, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Hermann Oelhaf, Peter Preusse, Jörn Ungermann, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Helmut Ziereis, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13681–13699,Short summary
We analyse nitrification of the LMS in the Arctic winter 2015–2016 based on GLORIA measurements. Vertical cross sections of HNO3 for several flights show complex fine–scale structures and enhanced values down to 9 km. The extent of overall nitrification is quantified based on HNO3–O3 correlations and reaches between 5 ppbv and 7 ppbv at potential temperature levels between 350 and 380 K. Further, we compare our result with the atmospheric model CLaMS.
Quentin Errera, Simon Chabrillat, Yves Christophe, Jonas Debosscher, Daan Hubert, William Lahoz, Michelle L. Santee, Masato Shiotani, Sergey Skachko, Thomas von Clarmann, and Kaley Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13647–13679,Short summary
BRAM2 is a 13-year reanalysis of the chemical composition from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere based on the assimilation of the Microwave Limb Sounder observations where eight species are assimilated: O3, H2O, N2O, HNO3, HCl, ClO, CH3Cl and CO. BRAM2 agrees generally well with independent observations in the middle stratosphere, the polar vortex and the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere but also shows several issues in the model and in the observations.
Susan S. Kulawik, Sean Crowell, David Baker, Junjie Liu, Kathryn McKain, Colm Sweeney, Sebastien C. Biraud, Steve Wofsy, Christopher W. O'Dell, Paul O. Wennberg, Debra Wunch, Coleen M. Roehl, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Matthäus Kiel, David W. T. Griffith, Voltaire A. Velazco, Justus Notholt, Thorsten Warneke, Christof Petri, Martine De Mazière, Mahesh K. Sha, Ralf Sussmann, Markus Rettinger, Dave F. Pollard, Isamu Morino, Osamu Uchino, Frank Hase, Dietrich G. Feist, Sébastien Roche, Kimberly Strong, Rigel Kivi, Laura Iraci, Kei Shiomi, Manvendra K. Dubey, Eliezer Sepulveda, Omaira Elena Garcia Rodriguez, Yao Té, Pascal Jeseck, Pauli Heikkinen, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Michael R. Gunson, Annmarie Eldering, David Crisp, Brendan Fisher, and Gregory B. Osterman
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Publication in AMT not foreseenShort summary
This paper provides a benchmark of OCO-2 v8 and ACOS-GOSAT v7.3 XCO2 and lowermost tropospheric (LMT) errors. The paper focuses on the systematic errors and subtracts out validation, co-location, and random errors, looks at the correlation scale-length (spatially and temporally) of systematic errors, finding that the scale lengths are similar to bias correction scale-lengths. The assimilates of the bias correction term is used to place an error on fluxes estimates.
Daniel H. Cusworth, Daniel J. Jacob, Daniel J. Varon, Christopher Chan Miller, Xiong Liu, Kelly Chance, Andrew K. Thorpe, Riley M. Duren, Charles E. Miller, David R. Thompson, Christian Frankenberg, Luis Guanter, and Cynthia A. Randles
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5655–5668,Short summary
We examine the potential for global detection of methane plumes from individual point sources with the new generation of spaceborne imaging spectrometers scheduled for launch in 2019–2025. We perform methane retrievals on simulated scenes with varying surfaces and atmospheric methane concentrations. Our results suggest that imaging spectrometers in space could play a transformative role in the future for quantifying methane emissions from point sources on a global scale.
Pascal Hedelt, Dmitry S. Efremenko, Diego G. Loyola, Robert Spurr, and Lieven Clarisse
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5503–5517,Short summary
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during volcanic eruptions poses not only a major threat to local populations, air quality, and aviation but also has an impact on the climate. The satellite-based detection of the SO2 plume is easy; however, it requires exact knowledge of the SO2 layer height. This paper presents a new method for the extremely fast and accurate determination of the layer height, which is essential in volcanic plume forecasts and the exact determination of the SO2 density.
Renske Timmermans, Arjo Segers, Lyana Curier, Rachid Abida, Jean-Luc Attié, Laaziz El Amraoui, Henk Eskes, Johan de Haan, Jukka Kujanpää, William Lahoz, Albert Oude Nijhuis, Samuel Quesada-Ruiz, Philippe Ricaud, Pepijn Veefkind, and Martijn Schaap
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12811–12833,Short summary
We present an evaluation of the added value of the Sentinel-4 and Sentinel-5P missions for air quality analyses of NO2. For this, synthetic observations for both missions are generated and combined with a chemistry transport model. While hourly Sentinel-4 NO2 observations over Europe benefit modelled NO2 analyses throughout the entire day, daily Sentinel-5P NO2 observations with global coverage show an impact up to 3–6 h after overpass. This supports the need for a combination of missions.
Susan S. Kulawik, Chris O'Dell, Robert R. Nelson, and Thomas E. Taylor
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5317–5334,Short summary
This work investigates errors in CO2 near-infrared estimates retrieved from simulated radiances. We find that interferent errors are underpredicted and that nonlinearity causes significant errors.
Juseon Bak, Kang-Hyeon Baek, Jae-Hwan Kim, Xiong Liu, Jhoon Kim, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5201–5215,Short summary
GEMS will be launched in late 2019 on board the GeoKOMPSAT (Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite) to measure O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, CHOCHO, and aerosols in East Asia. To support the development of the GEMS ozone profile algorithm, we perform the cross-evaluation of simulated GEMS ozone profile retrievals based on optimal estimation and ozonesonde measurements within the GEMS domain.
Huiqun Wang, Amir Hossein Souri, Gonzalo González Abad, Xiong Liu, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5183–5199,Short summary
Total column water vapor (TCWV) is retrieved from the spectra obtained by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Data filtering criteria are recommended. The OMI data generally compare well with reference datasets over both land and the oceans. The data are useful for a variety of applications spanning a range of spatial and temporal scales, such as atmospheric rivers, corn sweat and El Niño.
Kai Yang and Xiong Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4745–4778,Short summary
We constructed total-ozone-dependent and tropopause-dependent climatologies from MERRA-2 ozone data to describe the dynamic variations in the ozone profile in response to changing meteorological conditions. The new climatologies contain the first quantitative characterization of ozone profile covariances, which facilitate a new approach to improve ozone profiles using the most probable patterns of profile adjustments represented by the empirical orthogonal functions of the covariance matrices.
Sean Crowell, David Baker, Andrew Schuh, Sourish Basu, Andrew R. Jacobson, Frederic Chevallier, Junjie Liu, Feng Deng, Liang Feng, Kathryn McKain, Abhishek Chatterjee, John B. Miller, Britton B. Stephens, Annmarie Eldering, David Crisp, David Schimel, Ray Nassar, Christopher W. O'Dell, Tomohiro Oda, Colm Sweeney, Paul I. Palmer, and Dylan B. A. Jones
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9797–9831,Short summary
Space-based retrievals of carbon dioxide offer the potential to provide dense data in regions that are sparsely observed by the surface network. We find that flux estimates that are informed by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) show different character from that inferred using surface measurements in tropical land regions, particularly in Africa, with a much larger total emission and larger amplitude seasonal cycle.
Wenhan Qin, Zachary Fasnacht, David Haffner, Alexander Vasilkov, Joanna Joiner, Nickolay Krotkov, Bradford Fisher, and Robert Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3997–4017,Short summary
Satellite observations depend on Sun and view angles due to anisotropy of the Earth's atmosphere and surface reflection. But most of the ultraviolet and visible cloud, aerosol, and trace-gas algorithms utilize surface reflectivity databases that do not account for surface anisotropy. We create a surface database using the GLER concept which adequately accounts for surface anisotropy, validate it with independent satellite data, and provide a simple implementation to the current algorithms.
Juseon Bak, Xiong Liu, Kang Sun, Kelly Chance, and Jae-Hwan Kim
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3777–3788,Short summary
This work improves OMI ozone profile retrievals by accounting for spectral fit residuals caused by slit function errors as a pseudo absorber in the optimal-estimation-based spectral fitting process.
Hyeong-Ahn Kwon, Rokjin J. Park, Gonzalo González Abad, Kelly Chance, Thomas P. Kurosu, Jhoon Kim, Isabelle De Smedt, Michel Van Roozendael, Enno Peters, and John Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3551–3571,Short summary
The Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) will be launched by South Korea in 2019, and it will measure radiances ranging from 300 to 500 nm every hour with a fine spatial resolution of 7 km x 8 km over Seoul in South Korea to monitor column concentrations of air pollutants including O3, NO2, SO2, and HCHO, as well as aerosol optical properties. This paper describes a GEMS formaldehyde retrieval algorithm including a number of sensitivity tests for algorithm evaluation.
Sören Johansson, Michelle L. Santee, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Michael Höpfner, Marleen Braun, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Erik Kretschmer, Hermann Oelhaf, Johannes Orphal, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Ines Tritscher, Jörn Ungermann, Kaley A. Walker, and Wolfgang Woiwode
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8311–8338,Short summary
We present a study based on GLORIA aircraft and MLS/ACE-FTS/CALIOP satellite measurements during the Arctic winter 2015/16, which demonstrate (for the Arctic) unusual chlorine deactivation into HCl instead of ClONO2 due to low ozone abundances in the lowermost stratosphere, with a focus at 380 K potential temperature. The atmospheric models CLaMS and EMAC are evaluated, and measured ClONO2 is linked with transport and in situ deactivation in the lowermost stratosphere.
Lu Shen, Daniel J. Jacob, Xiong Liu, Guanyu Huang, Ke Li, Hong Liao, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6551–6560,
Iris-Amata Dion, Philippe Ricaud, Peter Haynes, Fabien Carminati, and Thibaut Dauhut
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6459–6479,Short summary
Water vapour and ice cirrus clouds near the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) have a strong radiative impact on climate. Based on space-borne observations, we have developed a model linking ice in the upper troposphere from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) to precipitation in the troposphere from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM). Our study quantifies the amount of ice injected into the TTL by deep convection over tropical lands and oceans by investigating the diurnal cycle of ice.
Brian D. Bue, David R. Thompson, Shubhankar Deshpande, Michael Eastwood, Robert O. Green, Vijay Natraj, Terry Mullen, and Mario Parente
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2567–2578,Short summary
Imaging spectrometers provide valuable remote measurements of Earth's surface and atmosphere. These measurements rely on computationally expensive radiative transfer models (RTMs). Spectrometers produce too much data to process with RTMs directly, requiring approximations that trade accuracy for speed. We demonstrate that neural networks can quickly emulate RTM calculations more accurately than current approaches, enabling the application of more sophisticated RTMs than current methods permit.
Vincent Huijnen, Andrea Pozzer, Joaquim Arteta, Guy Brasseur, Idir Bouarar, Simon Chabrillat, Yves Christophe, Thierno Doumbia, Johannes Flemming, Jonathan Guth, Béatrice Josse, Vlassis A. Karydis, Virginie Marécal, and Sophie Pelletier
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1725–1752,Short summary
We report on an evaluation of tropospheric ozone and its precursor gases in three atmospheric chemistry versions as implemented in ECMWF’s Integrated Forecasting System (IFS), referred to as IFS(CB05BASCOE), IFS(MOZART) and IFS(MOCAGE). This configuration of having various chemistry versions within IFS provides a quantification of uncertainties in CAMS trace gas products that are induced by chemistry modelling.
Annmarie Eldering, Thomas E. Taylor, Christopher W. O'Dell, and Ryan Pavlick
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2341–2370,Short summary
NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-3 (OCO-3) is scheduled for a 2019 launch to the International Space Station (ISS). It is expected to continue the record of column carbon dioxide (XCO2) and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) measurements from space used to study and constrain the Earth's carbon cycle. This work highlights the measurement objectives and uses simulated data to show that the expected instrument performance is on par with that of OCO-2.
John R. Worden, Susan S. Kulawik, Dejian Fu, Vivienne H. Payne, Alan E. Lipton, Igor Polonsky, Yuguang He, Karen Cady-Pereira, Jean-Luc Moncet, Robert L. Herman, Fredrick W. Irion, and Kevin W. Bowman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2331–2339,Short summary
In this paper we take the first steps towards generating a multi-decadal record of the deuterium content of water vapor, useful for evaluating the moisture sources and processes affecting water vapor, by estimating the deuterium content from thermal IR radiances from the AIRS instrument. We find the AIRS-based measurements are sensitive to the deuterium content of water vapor in the middle and lower troposphere with a single measurement uncertainty of ~ 3 % and an accuracy of ~ 0.7 %.
Matthäus Kiel, Christopher W. O'Dell, Brendan Fisher, Annmarie Eldering, Ray Nassar, Cameron G. MacDonald, and Paul O. Wennberg
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2241–2259,
Raid M. Suleiman, Kelly Chance, Xiong Liu, Gonzalo González Abad, Thomas P. Kurosu, Francois Hendrick, and Nicolas Theys
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2067–2084,Short summary
This paper presents the retrieval algorithm for the operational OMBRO data product and shows comparisons with correlative measurements and retrieval results. We highlight the physics of the retrieval. We compare the OMBRO products with other satellite and in situ measurements of BrO and illustrate the quality of the product on a global scale. We study OMBRO enhancements in volcanic plumes and over salt lakes. We also discuss the shortcomings and future updates of the OMBRO product.
Kai-Lan Chang, Owen R. Cooper, J. Jason West, Marc L. Serre, Martin G. Schultz, Meiyun Lin, Virginie Marécal, Béatrice Josse, Makoto Deushi, Kengo Sudo, Junhua Liu, and Christoph A. Keller
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 955–978,Short summary
We developed a new method for combining surface ozone observations from thousands of monitoring sites worldwide with the output from multiple atmospheric chemistry models. The result is a global surface ozone distribution with greater accuracy than any single model can achieve. We focused on an ozone metric relevant to human mortality caused by long-term ozone exposure. Our method can be applied to studies that quantify the impacts of ozone on human health and mortality.
Jin Liao, Thomas F. Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason St. Clair, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Alan Fried, Eloise A. Marais, Gonzalo Gonzalez Abad, Kelly Chance, Hiren T. Jethva, Thomas B. Ryerson, Carsten Warneke, and Armin Wisthaler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2765–2785,Short summary
Organic aerosol (OA) intimately links natural and anthropogenic emissions with air quality and climate. Direct OA measurements from space are currently not possible. This paper describes a new method to estimate OA by combining satellite HCHO and in situ OA and HCHO. The OA estimate is validated with the ground network. This new method has a potential for mapping observation-based global OA estimate.
Maxence Descheemaecker, Matthieu Plu, Virginie Marécal, Marine Claeyman, Francis Olivier, Youva Aoun, Philippe Blanc, Lucien Wald, Jonathan Guth, Bojan Sič, Jérôme Vidot, Andrea Piacentini, and Béatrice Josse
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1251–1275,Short summary
The future Flexible Combined Imager (FCI) on board MeteoSat Third Generation is expected to improve the detection and the quantification of aerosols. The study assesses the potential of FCI/VIS04 channel for monitoring air pollution in Europe. An observing system simulation experiment in MOCAGE is developed, and they show a large positive impact of the assimilation over a 4-month period and particularly during a severe pollution episode. The added value of geostationary data is also assessed.
Kang Sun, Lei Zhu, Karen Cady-Pereira, Christopher Chan Miller, Kelly Chance, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Gonzalo González Abad, Guanyu Huang, Xiong Liu, Martin Van Damme, Kai Yang, and Mark Zondlo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6679–6701,Short summary
An agile, physics-based approach is developed to oversample irregular satellite observations to a high-resolution common grid. Instead of assuming each sounding as a point or a polygon as in previous methods, the proposed physical oversampling represents soundings as distributions of sensitivity on the ground. This sensitivity distribution can be determined by the spatial response function of each satellite sensor, parameterized as generalized 2-D super Gaussian functions.
Christopher W. O'Dell, Annmarie Eldering, Paul O. Wennberg, David Crisp, Michael R. Gunson, Brendan Fisher, Christian Frankenberg, Matthäus Kiel, Hannakaisa Lindqvist, Lukas Mandrake, Aronne Merrelli, Vijay Natraj, Robert R. Nelson, Gregory B. Osterman, Vivienne H. Payne, Thomas E. Taylor, Debra Wunch, Brian J. Drouin, Fabiano Oyafuso, Albert Chang, James McDuffie, Michael Smyth, David F. Baker, Sourish Basu, Frédéric Chevallier, Sean M. R. Crowell, Liang Feng, Paul I. Palmer, Mavendra Dubey, Omaira E. García, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, Coleen M. Roehl, Mahesh K. Sha, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Te, Osamu Uchino, and Voltaire A. Velazco
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6539–6576,
Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, Michael J. Prather, Clare M. Flynn, Lee T. Murray, Arlene M. Fiore, Gustavo Correa, Sarah A. Strode, Stephen D. Steenrod, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Jonathan Guth, Béatrice Josse, Johannes Flemming, Vincent Huijnen, N. Luke Abraham, and Alex T. Archibald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16809–16828,Short summary
Photolysis (J rates) initiates and drives atmospheric chemistry, and Js are perturbed by factors of 2 by clouds. The NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) Mission provides the first comprehensive observations on how clouds perturb Js through the remote Pacific and Atlantic basins. We compare these cloud-perturbation J statistics with those from nine global chemistry models. While basic patterns agree, there is a large spread across models, and all lack some basic features of the observations.
Wolfgang Woiwode, Andreas Dörnbrack, Martina Bramberger, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Florian Haenel, Michael Höpfner, Sören Johansson, Erik Kretschmer, Isabell Krisch, Thomas Latzko, Hermann Oelhaf, Johannes Orphal, Peter Preusse, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, and Jörn Ungermann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15643–15667,Short summary
GLORIA observations during two crossings of the polar front jet stream resolve the fine mesoscale structure of a tropopause fold in high detail. Tracer–tracer correlations of H2O and O3 are presented as a function of potential temperature and reveal an active mixing region. Our study confirms conceptual models of tropopause folds, validates the high quality of ECMWF IFS forecasts, and suggests that mountain waves are capable of modulating exchange processes in the vicinity of tropopause folds.
Caroline R. Nowlan, Xiong Liu, Scott J. Janz, Matthew G. Kowalewski, Kelly Chance, Melanie B. Follette-Cook, Alan Fried, Gonzalo González Abad, Jay R. Herman, Laura M. Judd, Hyeong-Ahn Kwon, Christopher P. Loughner, Kenneth E. Pickering, Dirk Richter, Elena Spinei, James Walega, Petter Weibring, and Andrew J. Weinheimer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5941–5964,Short summary
The GEO-CAPE Airborne Simulator (GCAS) was developed in support of future air quality and ocean color geostationary satellite missions. GCAS flew in its first field campaign on NASA's King Air B-200 aircraft during DISCOVER-AQ Texas in 2013. In this paper, we determine nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde columns over Houston from the GCAS air quality sensor and compare those results with measurements made from ground-based Pandora spectrometers and in situ airborne instruments.
Michael Höpfner, Terry Deshler, Michael Pitts, Lamont Poole, Reinhold Spang, Gabriele Stiller, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5901–5923,Short summary
Polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) have major relevance to the processes leading to polar ozone depletion. A good understanding of these particles is a prerequisite to predict their role in a changing climate. We present the first global set of PSC volume density profiles derived from the MIPAS satellite measurements covering the entire mission period between 2002 and 2012. A comparison to CALIOP lidar measurements is provided. The dataset can serve as a basis for evaluation of atmospheric models.
Hansen Cao, Tzung-May Fu, Lin Zhang, Daven K. Henze, Christopher Chan Miller, Christophe Lerot, Gonzalo González Abad, Isabelle De Smedt, Qiang Zhang, Michel van Roozendael, François Hendrick, Kelly Chance, Jie Li, Junyu Zheng, and Yuanhong Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15017–15046,Short summary
Our top-down estimates for annual total Chinese NMVOC emissions was 30.7 to 49.5 Tg y−1, including 16.4 to 23.6 Tg y−1 from anthropogenic sources, 12.2 to 22.8 Tg y−1 from biogenic sources, and 2.08 to 3.13 Tg y−1 from biomass burning. Our four inversions consistently showed that the emissions of Chinese anthropogenic NMVOC precursors of glyoxal were larger than the a priori estimates. The glyoxal and formaldehyde constraints helped distinguish the NMVOC species from different sources.
Dejian Fu, Susan S. Kulawik, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Kevin W. Bowman, John R. Worden, Annmarie Eldering, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Joao Teixeira, Fredrick W. Irion, Robert L. Herman, Gregory B. Osterman, Xiong Liu, Pieternel F. Levelt, Anne M. Thompson, and Ming Luo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5587–5605,
Christian Borger, Matthias Schneider, Benjamin Ertl, Frank Hase, Omaira E. García, Michael Sommer, Michael Höpfner, Stephen A. Tjemkes, and Xavier Calbet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4981–5006,Short summary
In this paper MUSICA IASI tropospheric water vapour profile retrievals are evaluated by performing theoretical error assessments and comparisons to GRUAN radiosonde measurements. We show that the vertical water vapour distribution is well captured from 1 km above the ground up to the tropopause. Largest error sources are unrecognized clouds and uncertainties in atmospheric temperature, which can reach about 25 %.
Jiali Luo, Laura L. Pan, Shawn B. Honomichl, John W. Bergman, William J. Randel, Gene Francis, Cathy Clerbaux, Maya George, Xiong Liu, and Wenshou Tian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12511–12530,Short summary
We analyze upper tropospheric CO and O3 using satellite data from limb-viewing (MLS) and nadir-viewing (IASI and OMI) sensors, together with dynamical variables, to examine how the two types of data complement each other in representing the chemical variability associated with the day-to-day dynamical variability in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone. The results provide new observational evidence of eddy shedding in upper tropospheric CO distribution.
Pakawat Phalitnonkiat, Peter G. M. Hess, Mircea D. Grigoriu, Gennady Samorodnitsky, Wenxiu Sun, Ellie Beaudry, Simone Tilmes, Makato Deushi, Beatrice Josse, David Plummer, and Kengo Sudo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11927–11948,Short summary
The co-occurrence of heat waves and pollution events and the resulting high mortality rates emphasize the importance of the co-occurrence of pollution and temperature extremes. We analyze ozone and temperature extremes and their joint occurrence over the United States during the summer months (JJA) in measurement data and in model simulations of the present and future climates.
Sören Johansson, Wolfgang Woiwode, Michael Höpfner, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Anne Kleinert, Erik Kretschmer, Thomas Latzko, Johannes Orphal, Peter Preusse, Jörn Ungermann, Michelle L. Santee, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Andreas Marsing, Christiane Voigt, Andreas Giez, Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Andreas Zahn, Andreas Engel, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, and Hermann Oelhaf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4737–4756,Short summary
We present two-dimensional cross sections of temperature, HNO3, O3, ClONO2, H2O and CFC-12 from measurements of the GLORIA infrared limb imager during the POLSTRACC/GW-LCYCLE/SALSA aircraft campaigns in the Arctic winter 2015/2016. GLORIA sounded the atmosphere between 5 and 14 km with vertical resolutions of 0.4–1 km. Estimated errors are in the range of 1–2 K (temperature) and 10 %–20 % (trace gases). Comparisons to in situ instruments onboard the aircraft and to Aura/MLS are shown.
Alexander Vasilkov, Eun-Su Yang, Sergey Marchenko, Wenhan Qin, Lok Lamsal, Joanna Joiner, Nickolay Krotkov, David Haffner, Pawan K. Bhartia, and Robert Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4093–4107,Short summary
We discuss a new cloud algorithm that retrieves effective cloud fraction and cloud altitude and pressure from the oxygen dimer absorption band at 477 nm. The algorithm accounts for how changes in the sun–satellite geometry affect the surface reflection. The cloud fraction and pressure are used as inputs to the OMI algorithm that retrieves a pollutant gas called nitrogen dioxide. Impacts of the application of the newly developed cloud algorithm on the OMI nitrogen dioxide retrieval are discussed.
Nizar Jaidan, Laaziz El Amraoui, Jean-Luc Attié, Philippe Ricaud, and François Dulac
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9351–9373,Short summary
The Mediterranean Basin, surrounded by three continents with diverse pollution sources, is particularly sensitive to climate change due to its location and diversity of ecosystems. In this work, we investigate the future change of surface ozone from 2000 to 2100 over this region using a set of atmospheric model outputs and ground-based observations. We also highlight how the future climate change and the increase of methane concentrations can offset the benefit of the pollution reduction policy.
Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Gabriele Stiller, Michael Höpfner, Michelle L. Santee, Sylvia Kellmann, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8873–8892,Short summary
An extensive assessment of the performance of the chemistry–climate model EMAC is given for Arctic winters 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The EMAC simulations are compared to satellite observations. The comparisons between EMAC simulations and satellite observations show that model and measurements compare well for these two Arctic winters. However, differences between model and observations are found that need improvements in the model in the future.
Matthew S. Johnson, Xiong Liu, Peter Zoogman, John Sullivan, Michael J. Newchurch, Shi Kuang, Thierry Leblanc, and Thomas McGee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3457–3477,Short summary
This research was conducted to determine the impact of multiple a priori ozone (O3) profile products on Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite retrievals. It was determined that non-climatological model predictions, in particular those from a chemical transport model, when applied as the a priori profile improved the accuracy of TEMPO tropospheric O3 retrievals in comparison to the TB-Clim product that is currently suggested for use in the TEMPO retrieval algorithm.
Sandip S. Dhomse, Douglas Kinnison, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Ross J. Salawitch, Irene Cionni, Michaela I. Hegglin, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alex T. Archibald, Ewa M. Bednarz, Slimane Bekki, Peter Braesicke, Neal Butchart, Martin Dameris, Makoto Deushi, Stacey Frith, Steven C. Hardiman, Birgit Hassler, Larry W. Horowitz, Rong-Ming Hu, Patrick Jöckel, Beatrice Josse, Oliver Kirner, Stefanie Kremser, Ulrike Langematz, Jared Lewis, Marion Marchand, Meiyun Lin, Eva Mancini, Virginie Marécal, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, John A. Pyle, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Robyn Schofield, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Kengo Sudo, Simone Tilmes, Daniele Visioni, Yousuke Yamashita, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8409–8438,Short summary
We analyse simulations from the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) to estimate the return dates of the stratospheric ozone layer from depletion by anthropogenic chlorine and bromine. The simulations from 20 models project that global column ozone will return to 1980 values in 2047 (uncertainty range 2042–2052). Return dates in other regions vary depending on factors related to climate change and importance of chlorine and bromine. Column ozone in the tropics may continue to decline.
Si-Wan Kim, Vijay Natraj, Seoyoung Lee, Hyeong-Ahn Kwon, Rokjin Park, Joost de Gouw, Gregory Frost, Jhoon Kim, Jochen Stutz, Michael Trainer, Catalina Tsai, and Carsten Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7639–7655,Short summary
Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a hazardous air pollutant and is associated with tropospheric ozone production. HCHO has been monitored from space. In this study, to acquire high-quality satellite-based HCHO observations, we utilize fine-resolution atmospheric chemistry model results as an input to the computer code for satellite retrievals over the Los Angeles Basin. Our study indicates that the use of fine-resolution profile shapes helps to identify HCHO plumes from space.
Clara Orbe, Huang Yang, Darryn W. Waugh, Guang Zeng, Olaf Morgenstern, Douglas E. Kinnison, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Simone Tilmes, David A. Plummer, John F. Scinocca, Beatrice Josse, Virginie Marecal, Patrick Jöckel, Luke D. Oman, Susan E. Strahan, Makoto Deushi, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Kohei Yoshida, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Yousuke Yamashita, Andreas Stenke, Laura Revell, Timofei Sukhodolov, Eugene Rozanov, Giovanni Pitari, Daniele Visioni, Kane A. Stone, Robyn Schofield, and Antara Banerjee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7217–7235,Short summary
In this study we compare a few atmospheric transport properties among several numerical models that are used to study the influence of atmospheric chemistry on climate. We show that there are large differences among models in terms of the timescales that connect the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes, where greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting substances are emitted, to the Southern Hemisphere. Our results may have important implications for how models represent atmospheric composition.
Vanessa Brocchi, Gisèle Krysztofiak, Valéry Catoire, Jonathan Guth, Virginie Marécal, Régina Zbinden, Laaziz El Amraoui, François Dulac, and Philippe Ricaud
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6887–6906,Short summary
The Mediterranean Basin still suffers from a limited amount of in situ measurements for a good characterization of its environmental state. This study shows that intercontinental transport of very high CO concentrations can affect the upper Mediterranean Basin troposphere. By using modeling, 5- to 12-day eastward transport of biomass burning starting from North America and Siberia impacts the mid-troposphere of the Mediterranean Basin.
Pieternel F. Levelt, Joanna Joiner, Johanna Tamminen, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Pawan K. Bhartia, Deborah C. Stein Zweers, Bryan N. Duncan, David G. Streets, Henk Eskes, Ronald van der A, Chris McLinden, Vitali Fioletov, Simon Carn, Jos de Laat, Matthew DeLand, Sergey Marchenko, Richard McPeters, Jerald Ziemke, Dejian Fu, Xiong Liu, Kenneth Pickering, Arnoud Apituley, Gonzalo González Abad, Antti Arola, Folkert Boersma, Christopher Chan Miller, Kelly Chance, Martin de Graaf, Janne Hakkarainen, Seppo Hassinen, Iolanda Ialongo, Quintus Kleipool, Nickolay Krotkov, Can Li, Lok Lamsal, Paul Newman, Caroline Nowlan, Raid Suleiman, Lieuwe Gijsbert Tilstra, Omar Torres, Huiqun Wang, and Krzysztof Wargan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5699–5745,Short summary
The aim of this paper is to highlight the many successes of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) spanning more than 13 years. Data from OMI have been used in a wide range of applications. Due to its unprecedented spatial resolution, in combination with daily global coverage, OMI plays a unique role in measuring trace gases important for the ozone layer, air quality, and climate change. OMI data continue to be used for new research and applications.
Emily V. Fischer, Liye Zhu, Vivienne H. Payne, John R. Worden, Zhe Jiang, Susan S. Kulawik, Steven Brey, Arsineh Hecobian, Daniel Gombos, Karen Cady-Pereira, and Frank Flocke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5639–5653,Short summary
PAN is an atmospheric reservoir for nitrogen oxide radicals, and it plays a lead role in their redistribution in the troposphere. We analyze new Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) PAN observations over North America during July 2006 to 2009. We identify smoke-impacted TES PAN retrievals by co-location with NOAA Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke plumes. Depending on the year, 15–32 % of cases where elevated PAN is identified in TES observations overlap with smoke plumes.
Yann Cohen, Hervé Petetin, Valérie Thouret, Virginie Marécal, Béatrice Josse, Hannah Clark, Bastien Sauvage, Alain Fontaine, Gilles Athier, Romain Blot, Damien Boulanger, Jean-Marc Cousin, and Philippe Nédélec
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5415–5453,Short summary
Measurements of ozone and carbon monoxide were performed during 1994–2013 around the tropopause on board commercial aircraft. Seasonal cycles and trends were calculated above eight well-sampled regions in Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes. CO shows decreasing concentrations over the last 10 years, thus reflecting the impact of the legislation on anthropogenic emissions. Ozone amounts increased over the 20 years in the upper troposphere during different seasons, depending on the longitudes.
Reinhold Spang, Lars Hoffmann, Rolf Müller, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Ines Tritscher, Michael Höpfner, Michael Pitts, Andrew Orr, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5089–5113,Short summary
This paper represents an unprecedented pole-covering day- and nighttime climatology of the polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) based on satellite measurements, their spatial distribution, and composition of different particle types. The climatology has a high potential for the validation and improvement of PSC schemes in chemical transport and chemistry–climate models, which is important for a better prediction of future polar ozone loss in a changing climate.
Yannick Kangah, Philippe Ricaud, Jean-Luc Attié, Naoko Saitoh, Jérôme Vidot, Pascal Brunel, and Samuel Quesada-Ruiz
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Xiao Lu, Lin Zhang, Xiong Liu, Meng Gao, Yuanhong Zhao, and Jingyuan Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3101–3118,Short summary
Deteriorating tropospheric ozone pollution over India may not only affect local human health and vegetation but also perturb global ozone distribution. This study analyzes the processes controlling lower tropospheric ozone over India using OMI satellite observations (2006–2014) and model simulations (1990–2010). We show that the South Asian monsoon largely controls the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of Indian lower tropospheric ozone via changes in ozone production and transport.
Annika Günther, Michael Höpfner, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Sabine Griessbach, Terry Deshler, Thomas von Clarmann, and Gabriele Stiller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1217–1239,Short summary
Satellite-borne data of sulfur dioxide and a new data set of sulfate aerosol volume densities, as retrieved from MIPAS measurements, are studied in the upper-troposphere–lower-stratosphere region. General patterns of enhanced aerosol are in agreement with SO2. Via chemical transport model simulations for two volcanic eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes, we show that the volcanic enhancements in MIPAS SO2 and sulfate aerosol are consistent in terms of mass and transport patterns.
Diego G. Loyola, Sebastián Gimeno García, Ronny Lutz, Athina Argyrouli, Fabian Romahn, Robert J. D. Spurr, Mattia Pedergnana, Adrian Doicu, Víctor Molina García, and Olena Schüssler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 409–427,Short summary
In this paper we present the operational cloud retrieval algorithms for the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) on board the Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) mission: OCRA (Optical Cloud Recognition Algorithm) retrieves the cloud fraction using measurements in the UV–VIS spectral regions, and ROCINN (Retrieval of Cloud Information using Neural Networks) retrieves the cloud top height and optical thickness using measurements in and around the oxygen A-band in the NIR.
Guanyu Huang, Xiong Liu, Kelly Chance, Kai Yang, and Zhaonan Cai
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 17–32,Short summary
In this paper, we focus on the validation of OMI ozone (PROFOZ) product in the stratosphere using MLS ozone observations. This paper, with its companion paper focusing on the validation in the troposphere by using global ozonesonde observations, provides us with a comprehensive understanding of the data quality of OMI PROFOZ product and impacts of the “row anomaly”.
Gerald Wetzel, Hermann Oelhaf, Michael Höpfner, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Andreas Ebersoldt, Thomas Gulde, Sebastian Kazarski, Oliver Kirner, Anne Kleinert, Guido Maucher, Hans Nordmeyer, Johannes Orphal, Roland Ruhnke, and Björn-Martin Sinnhuber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14631–14643,Short summary
We report the first stratospheric measurements of the diurnal variation in the inorganic bromine (Bry) reservoir species BrONO2 around sunrise and sunset. The main goal of these observations was to check the current understanding of stratospheric bromine chemistry and to estimate the amount of lower-stratospheric Bry. The calculated temporal variation in BrONO2 largely reproduces the balloon-borne observations. The amount of Bry was estimated to be about 21–25 pptv in the lower stratosphere.
Juseon Bak, Xiong Liu, Jae-Hwan Kim, David P. Haffner, Kelly Chance, Kai Yang, and Kang Sun
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4373–4388,Short summary
This paper verifies and corrects the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) nadir mapper (NM) level 1B v2.0 measurements to retrieve reliable ozone profile and tropospheric ozone using an optimal estimation inversion with the fitting window of 302.5–340 nm. We apply "soft calibration" and "common mode correction" to OMPS radiances to eliminate systematic errors in the fitting residuals and derive random-noise measurement errors accounting for both OMPS radiances and forward model calculation.
Uri Dayan, Philippe Ricaud, Régina Zbinden, and François Dulac
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13233–13263,
Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Sören Johansson, Michael Höpfner, Michelle L. Santee, Lucien Froidevaux, Jörn Ungermann, Roland Ruhnke, Wolfgang Woiwode, Hermann Oelhaf, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12893–12910,Short summary
The 2015/2016 Arctic winter was one of the coldest winters in recent years, allowing extensive PSC formation and chlorine activation. Model simulations of the 2015/2016 Arctic winter were performed with the atmospheric chemistry–climate model ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC). We find that ozone loss was quite strong but not as strong as in 2010/2011; denitrification and dehydration were so far the strongest observed in the Arctic stratosphere in at least the past 10 years.
Kang Sun, Xiong Liu, Guanyu Huang, Gonzalo González Abad, Zhaonan Cai, Kelly Chance, and Kai Yang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3677–3695,Short summary
This study derives on-orbit slit functions from the OMI irradiance spectra. The results differ from the widely used preflight slit functions. The on-orbit changes of OMI slit functions are insignificant over time after accounting for the solar activity. Applying the derived on-orbit slit functions to ozone-profile retrieval shows substantial improvements over the preflight slit functions based on comparisons with ozonesonde validations.
Karen E. Cady-Pereira, Vivienne H. Payne, Jessica L. Neu, Kevin W. Bowman, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Eloise A. Marais, Susan Kulawik, Zitely A. Tzompa-Sosa, and Jennifer D. Hegarty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9379–9398,Short summary
Air quality is a major issue for megacities. Our paper looks at satellite measurements over Mexico City and Lagos of several trace gases gases related to air quality to determine the temporal and spatial variability of these gases, and it relates this variability to local conditions, such as topography, winds and biomass burning events. We find that, while Mexico City is known for severe pollution events, the levels of of pollution in Lagos are much higher and more persistent.
John R. Worden, Gary Doran, Susan Kulawik, Annmarie Eldering, David Crisp, Christian Frankenberg, Chris O'Dell, and Kevin Bowman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2759–2771,Short summary
This paper evaluates the uncertainties of the total column carbon dioxide (XCO2) measurements from the NASA OCO-2 instrument by comparing observed variations in small geographical regions to the calculated uncertainties of the data within this region. In general we find that the reported XCO2 precision is related to that expected from the XCO2 radiance noise. However, the reported accuracy is at least smaller than the actual accuracy by a factor of 2–4.
Christopher Chan Miller, Daniel J. Jacob, Eloise A. Marais, Karen Yu, Katherine R. Travis, Patrick S. Kim, Jenny A. Fisher, Lei Zhu, Glenn M. Wolfe, Thomas F. Hanisco, Frank N. Keutsch, Jennifer Kaiser, Kyung-Eun Min, Steven S. Brown, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Gonzalo González Abad, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8725–8738,Short summary
The use of satellite glyoxal observations for estimating isoprene emissions has been limited by knowledge of the glyoxal yield from isoprene. We use SENEX aircraft observations over the southeast US to evaluate glyoxal yields from isoprene in a 3-D atmospheric model. The SENEX observations support a pathway for glyoxal formation in pristine regions that we propose here, which may have implications for improving isoprene emissions estimates from upcoming high-resolution geostationary satellites.
Guanyu Huang, Xiong Liu, Kelly Chance, Kai Yang, Pawan K. Bhartia, Zhaonan Cai, Marc Allaart, Gérard Ancellet, Bertrand Calpini, Gerrie J. R. Coetzee, Emilio Cuevas-Agulló, Manuel Cupeiro, Hugo De Backer, Manvendra K. Dubey, Henry E. Fuelberg, Masatomo Fujiwara, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Tristan J. Hall, Bryan Johnson, Everette Joseph, Rigel Kivi, Bogumil Kois, Ninong Komala, Gert König-Langlo, Giovanni Laneve, Thierry Leblanc, Marion Marchand, Kenneth R. Minschwaner, Gary Morris, Michael J. Newchurch, Shin-Ya Ogino, Nozomu Ohkawara, Ankie J. M. Piters, Françoise Posny, Richard Querel, Rinus Scheele, Frank J. Schmidlin, Russell C. Schnell, Otto Schrems, Henry Selkirk, Masato Shiotani, Pavla Skrivánková, René Stübi, Ghassan Taha, David W. Tarasick, Anne M. Thompson, Valérie Thouret, Matthew B. Tully, Roeland Van Malderen, Holger Vömel, Peter von der Gathen, Jacquelyn C. Witte, and Margarita Yela
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2455–2475,Short summary
It is essential to understand the data quality of +10-year OMI ozone product and impacts of the “row anomaly” (RA). We validate the OMI Ozone Profile (PROFOZ) product from Oct 2004 to Dec 2014 against ozonesonde observations globally. Generally, OMI has good agreement with ozonesondes. The spatiotemporal variation of retrieval performance suggests the need to improve OMI’s radiometric calibration especially during the post-RA period to maintain the long-term stability.
Hyun-Deok Choi, Hongyu Liu, James H. Crawford, David B. Considine, Dale J. Allen, Bryan N. Duncan, Larry W. Horowitz, Jose M. Rodriguez, Susan E. Strahan, Lin Zhang, Xiong Liu, Megan R. Damon, and Stephen D. Steenrod
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8429–8452,Short summary
We evaluate global ozone–carbon monoxide (O3–CO) correlations in a chemistry and transport model during July–August with TES-Aura satellite observations and examine the sensitivity of model simulations to input meteorological data and emissions. Results show that O3–CO correlations may be used effectively to constrain the sources of regional tropospheric O3 in global 3-D models, especially for those regions where convective transport of pollution plays an important role.
Debra Wunch, Paul O. Wennberg, Gregory Osterman, Brendan Fisher, Bret Naylor, Coleen M. Roehl, Christopher O'Dell, Lukas Mandrake, Camille Viatte, Matthäus Kiel, David W. T. Griffith, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Voltaire A. Velazco, Justus Notholt, Thorsten Warneke, Christof Petri, Martine De Maziere, Mahesh K. Sha, Ralf Sussmann, Markus Rettinger, David Pollard, John Robinson, Isamu Morino, Osamu Uchino, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Dietrich G. Feist, Sabrina G. Arnold, Kimberly Strong, Joseph Mendonca, Rigel Kivi, Pauli Heikkinen, Laura Iraci, James Podolske, Patrick W. Hillyard, Shuji Kawakami, Manvendra K. Dubey, Harrison A. Parker, Eliezer Sepulveda, Omaira E. García, Yao Te, Pascal Jeseck, Michael R. Gunson, David Crisp, and Annmarie Eldering
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2209–2238,Short summary
This paper describes the comparisons between NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 with its primary ground-based validation network, the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). The paper shows that while the standard bias correction reduces much of the spurious variability in the satellite measurements, residual biases remain.
Vivienne H. Payne, Emily V. Fischer, John R. Worden, Zhe Jiang, Liye Zhu, Thomas P. Kurosu, and Susan S. Kulawik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6341–6351,Short summary
Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) plays a key role in atmospheric chemistry and long-range transport of pollution. In this paper, we present measurements of PAN from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer, an instrument on board the NASA Aura satellite since 2004. We focus on measurements of PAN in tropical regions, where data from ground-based and aircraft campaigns are particularly sparse. We observe temporal changes in PAN associated with changes in fires, convection and emissions.
Susan S. Kulawik, Chris O'Dell, Vivienne H. Payne, Le Kuai, Helen M. Worden, Sebastien C. Biraud, Colm Sweeney, Britton Stephens, Laura T. Iraci, Emma L. Yates, and Tomoaki Tanaka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5407–5438,Short summary
We introduce new vertically resolved GOSAT products that better separate locally and remotely influenced CO2. Current GOSAT column results for CO2 (XCO2) are sensitive to fluxes on continental scales, whereas flux estimates from surface and tower measurements are affected by sampling bias and model transport uncertainty. These new GOSAT measurements of boundary layer CO2 are validated against aircraft and surface observations of CO2 and are compared to vertically resolved MOPITT CO.
Philippe Ricaud, Eric Bazile, Massimo del Guasta, Christian Lanconelli, Paolo Grigioni, and Achraf Mahjoub
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5221–5237,Short summary
The novelty of the paper is to combine a large set of measurements and meteorological models to study the genesis of thick cloud and diamond dust/ice fog (ice crystals) episodes above Dome C, Antarctica. The originality of the work is to attribute the presence of thick cloud and diamond dust/ice fog to advection and microphysical processes with oceanic and continental origin of air masses, respectively. Thick cloud episodes are reproduced by the models but not diamond dust/ice fog episode.
Michael P. Barkley, Gonzalo González Abad, Thomas P. Kurosu, Robert Spurr, Sara Torbatian, and Christophe Lerot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4687–4709,Short summary
Using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) trace gas vertical column observations of NO2, HCHO, SO2, and CHOCHO, we have conducted a robust and detailed time series analysis to assess changes in local air quality for over 1000 locations (focussing on urban, oil refinery, oil port, and power plant targets) over the Middle East for 2005–2014. We find that for many locations in the Middle East, OMI observes a degradation in air quality during this time period.
Daniel Cariolle, Philippe Moinat, Hubert Teyssèdre, Luc Giraud, Béatrice Josse, and Franck Lefèvre
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1467–1485,Short summary
This article reports on the development and tests of the adaptive semi-implicit scheme (ASIS) solver for the simulation of atmospheric chemistry. To solve the ordinary differential equations associated with the time evolution of the species concentrations, ASIS adopts a one-step linearized implicit scheme. It conserves mass and has a time-stepping module to control the accuracy of the numerical solution. ASIS was found competitive in terms of computation cost against higher-order schemes.
Hyeong-Ahn Kwon, Rokjin J. Park, Jaein I. Jeong, Seungun Lee, Gonzalo González Abad, Thomas P. Kurosu, Paul I. Palmer, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4673–4686,Short summary
A geostationary satellite can measure daytime hourly HCHO columns. Atmospheric conditions such as synoptic meteorology and the presence of other gases and aerosols may affect HCHO measurements. We examine the effects of their temporal variation on the HCHO measurement of a geostationary satellite in East Asia. We find that the hourly variation of other species could be important. Especially the inclusion of hourly aerosol variation in the retrieval could lead to improving HCHO measurements.
Kang Sun, Xiong Liu, Caroline R. Nowlan, Zhaonan Cai, Kelly Chance, Christian Frankenberg, Richard A. M. Lee, Randy Pollock, Robert Rosenberg, and David Crisp
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 939–953,Short summary
Accurately characterizing the instrument line shape (ILS) of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) is challenging and highly important due to its high spectral resolution and requirement for retrieval accuracy. Measured ILS during preflight experiments has been used in the OCO-2 CO2 retrieval. This study derives the on-orbit ILS of OCO-2 using its solar measurements and answers the questions whether on-orbit ILS has changed compared to preflight and whether it varies during the mission.
Norbert Glatthor, Michael Höpfner, Adrian Leyser, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Udo Grabowski, Sylvia Kellmann, Andrea Linden, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Gisèle Krysztofiak, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2631–2652,Short summary
To date, information on the global distribution of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is still rather sparse. However, detailed knowledge of the OCS distribution is of scientific interest, because this trace gas is on one of the major sources of atmospheric sulfur, which is a prerequisite of the stratospheric aerosol layer. Under this aspect we present a comprehensive space-borne data set of global OCS concentrations covering the period from June 2002 to April 2012.
Zhao-Cheng Zeng, Qiong Zhang, Vijay Natraj, Jack S. Margolis, Run-Lie Shia, Sally Newman, Dejian Fu, Thomas J. Pongetti, Kam W. Wong, Stanley P. Sander, Paul O. Wennberg, and Yuk L. Yung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2495–2508,Short summary
We propose a novel approach to describing the scattering effects of atmospheric aerosols using H2O retrievals in the near infrared. We found that the aerosol scattering effect is the primary contributor to the variations in the wavelength dependence of the H2O SCD retrievals and the scattering effects can be derived using H2O retrievals from multiple bands. This proposed method could potentially contribute towards reducing biases in greenhouse gas retrievals from space.
Annmarie Eldering, Chris W. O'Dell, Paul O. Wennberg, David Crisp, Michael R. Gunson, Camille Viatte, Charles Avis, Amy Braverman, Rebecca Castano, Albert Chang, Lars Chapsky, Cecilia Cheng, Brian Connor, Lan Dang, Gary Doran, Brendan Fisher, Christian Frankenberg, Dejian Fu, Robert Granat, Jonathan Hobbs, Richard A. M. Lee, Lukas Mandrake, James McDuffie, Charles E. Miller, Vicky Myers, Vijay Natraj, Denis O'Brien, Gregory B. Osterman, Fabiano Oyafuso, Vivienne H. Payne, Harold R. Pollock, Igor Polonsky, Coleen M. Roehl, Robert Rosenberg, Florian Schwandner, Mike Smyth, Vivian Tang, Thomas E. Taylor, Cathy To, Debra Wunch, and Jan Yoshimizu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 549–563,Short summary
This paper describes the measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide collected in the first 18 months of the satellite mission known as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2). The paper shows maps of the carbon dioxide data, data density, and other data fields that illustrate the data quality. This mission has collected a more precise, more dense dataset of carbon dioxide then we have ever had previously.
Olaf Morgenstern, Michaela I. Hegglin, Eugene Rozanov, Fiona M. O'Connor, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alexander T. Archibald, Slimane Bekki, Neal Butchart, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Makoto Deushi, Sandip S. Dhomse, Rolando R. Garcia, Steven C. Hardiman, Larry W. Horowitz, Patrick Jöckel, Beatrice Josse, Douglas Kinnison, Meiyun Lin, Eva Mancini, Michael E. Manyin, Marion Marchand, Virginie Marécal, Martine Michou, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, Laura E. Revell, David Saint-Martin, Robyn Schofield, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Kengo Sudo, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Simone Tilmes, Yousuke Yamashita, Kohei Yoshida, and Guang Zeng
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 639–671,Short summary
We present a review of the make-up of 20 models participating in the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI). In comparison to earlier such activities, most of these models comprise a whole-atmosphere chemistry, and several of them include an interactive ocean module. This makes them suitable for studying the interactions of tropospheric air quality, stratospheric ozone, and climate. The paper lays the foundation for other studies using the CCMI simulations for scientific analysis.
Can Li, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Simon Carn, Yan Zhang, Robert J. D. Spurr, and Joanna Joiner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 445–458,Short summary
In this paper, we describe the new-generation OMI volcanic SO2 algorithm based on our principal component analysis (PCA) retrieval technique. We demonstrate significant improvement in the our new OMI volcanic SO2 data, with the retrieval noise reduced by a factor of 2 as compared with the previous dataset. The algorithm also improves the accuracy for large volcanic eruptions. It is also capable of producing consistent retrievals between different instruments.
Alexander Vasilkov, Wenhan Qin, Nickolay Krotkov, Lok Lamsal, Robert Spurr, David Haffner, Joanna Joiner, Eun-Su Yang, and Sergey Marchenko
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 333–349,Short summary
We show how the surface reflection can vary day to day in the blue part of the sun's spectrum where we measure the pollutant gas nitrogen dioxide using a satellite instrument called OMI. We use information from an imaging spectrometer on another satellite, MODIS, to estimate the angular surface effects. We can then use models of how the sunlight travels through the atmosphere to predict how the angle-dependent surface reflection will impact the values of pollutant levels inferred by OMI.
Rachid Abida, Jean-Luc Attié, Laaziz El Amraoui, Philippe Ricaud, William Lahoz, Henk Eskes, Arjo Segers, Lyana Curier, Johan de Haan, Jukka Kujanpää, Albert Oude Nijhuis, Johanna Tamminen, Renske Timmermans, and Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1081–1103,Short summary
A detailed Observing System Simulation Experiment is performed to quantify the impact of future satellite instrument S-5P carbon monoxide (CO) on tropospheric analyses and forecasts. We focus on Europe for the period of northern summer 2003, when there was a severe heat wave episode. S-5P is able to capture the CO from forest fires that occurred in Portugal. Furthermore, our results provide evidence of S-5P CO benefits for monitoring processes contributing to atmospheric pollution.
David Crisp, Harold R. Pollock, Robert Rosenberg, Lars Chapsky, Richard A. M. Lee, Fabiano A. Oyafuso, Christian Frankenberg, Christopher W. O'Dell, Carol J. Bruegge, Gary B. Doran, Annmarie Eldering, Brendan M. Fisher, Dejian Fu, Michael R. Gunson, Lukas Mandrake, Gregory B. Osterman, Florian M. Schwandner, Kang Sun, Tommy E. Taylor, Paul O. Wennberg, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 59–81,Short summary
The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 carries and points a three-channel imaging grating spectrometer designed to collect high-resolution spectra of reflected sunlight within the molecular oxygen A-band at 0.765 microns and the carbon dioxide bands at 1.61 and 2.06 microns. Here, we describe the OCO-2 instrument, its data products, and its performance during its first 18 months in orbit.
François Gheusi, Pierre Durand, Nicolas Verdier, François Dulac, Jean-Luc Attié, Philippe Commun, Brice Barret, Claude Basdevant, Antoine Clenet, Solène Derrien, Alexis Doerenbecher, Laaziz El Amraoui, Alain Fontaine, Emeric Hache, Corinne Jambert, Elodie Jaumouillé, Yves Meyerfeld, Laurent Roblou, and Flore Tocquer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5811–5832,Short summary
Boundary-layer pressurised balloons allow for horizontal multi-day flights in the lower atmosphere, carrying light scientific payloads. Ozonesondes, usually used for balloon soundings have too short a lifetime for such flights. An adaptation is proposed, whereby conventional sondes are operated with short measurement phases alternating with longer periods of dormancy. The sondes were operated over the western Mediterranean, offering an original perspective on tropospheric ozone.
Bojan Sič, Laaziz El Amraoui, Andrea Piacentini, Virginie Marécal, Emanuele Emili, Daniel Cariolle, Michael Prather, and Jean-Luc Attié
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5535–5554,
Michael Höpfner, Rainer Volkamer, Udo Grabowski, Michel Grutter, Johannes Orphal, Gabriele Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, and Gerald Wetzel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14357–14369,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere is important because of its influence on aerosol and cloud formation and its increasing anthropogenic emissions. We report the first detection of NH3 in the upper troposphere by the analysis of infrared limb emission spectra measured by the MIPAS instrument on Envisat. We have found enhanced values of NH3 within the Asian summer monsoon upper troposphere, where it might contribute to the composition of the Asian tropopause aerosol layer.
Daniel J. Jacob, Alexander J. Turner, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Jianxiong Sheng, Kang Sun, Xiong Liu, Kelly Chance, Ilse Aben, Jason McKeever, and Christian Frankenberg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14371–14396,Short summary
Methane is a greenhouse gas emitted by a range of natural and anthropogenic sources. Atmospheric methane has been measured continuously from space since 2003, and new instruments are planned to launch in the near future that will greatly expand the capabilities of space-based observations. We review the value of current, future, and proposed satellite observations to better quantify methane emissions from the global scale down to the scale of point sources.
Lei Zhu, Daniel J. Jacob, Patrick S. Kim, Jenny A. Fisher, Karen Yu, Katherine R. Travis, Loretta J. Mickley, Robert M. Yantosca, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Isabelle De Smedt, Gonzalo González Abad, Kelly Chance, Can Li, Richard Ferrare, Alan Fried, Johnathan W. Hair, Thomas F. Hanisco, Dirk Richter, Amy Jo Scarino, James Walega, Petter Weibring, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13477–13490,Short summary
HCHO column data are widely used as a proxy for VOCs emissions, but validation of the data has been extremely limited. We use accurate aircraft observations to validate and intercompare 6 HCHO retrievals with GEOS-Chem as the intercomparison platform. Retrievals are interconsistent in spatial variability over the SE US and in daily variability, but are biased low by 20–51 %. Our work supports the use of HCHO column as a quantitative proxy for isoprene emission after correction of the low bias.
Hiren Jethva, Omar Torres, Lorraine Remer, Jens Redemann, John Livingston, Stephen Dunagan, Yohei Shinozuka, Meloe Kacenelenbogen, Michal Segal Rosenheimer, and Rob Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5053–5062,Short summary
Validation of the above-cloud aerosol optical depth retrieved using the "color ratio" method applied to MODIS cloudy-sky measurements against airborne direct measurements made by NASA’s AATS and 4STAR sun photometers during SAFARI-2000, ACE-ASIA 2001, and SEAC4RS 2013 reveals a good level of agreement (difference < 0.1), in which most matchups are found be constrained within the estimated uncertainties associated with the MODIS retrievals (-10 % to +50 %).
Line Jourdain, Tjarda Jane Roberts, Michel Pirre, and Beatrice Josse
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12099–12125,Short summary
Ambrym Volcano (Vanuatu, southwest Pacific) is one of the largest sources of continuous volcanic emissions worldwide. We performed a modeling study that confirms the strong influence of Ambrym emissions during an extreme degassing event of early 2005 on the composition of the atmosphere on the local and regional scales. It also stresses the importance of considering reactive halogen chemistry in the volcanic plume when assessing the impact of volcanic emissions on climate.
Huiqun Wang, Gonzalo Gonzalez Abad, Xiong Liu, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11379–11393,Short summary
Water vapor is highly important. The OMI total column water vapor product retrieved using SAO's version 1.0 algorithm agrees well with other reference products over the land but has a low bias over the ocean. The updated OMI water vapor product retrieved using SAO's version 2.1 algorithm largely eliminates the low bias over the ocean, improving the land/ocean consistency and the overall data quality. This dataset can benefit a variety of scientific studies and practical applications.
Juseon Bak, Xiong Liu, Jae H. Kim, Matthew T. Deland, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4521–4531,Short summary
The main focus of this paper is improving an error of OMI nadir ozone profile retrievals due to the presence of polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs), consisting of small light-scattering particles at an altitude of 80–85 km. This error is shown to be systematic bias from ~ −2 at 2 hPa to ~ −20 % at 0.5 hPa and significantly correlated with brightness of PMCs. We reduce this interference of PMCs on ozone retrievals by including the PMC optical depth in the forward-model calculation and retrieval.
Swagata Payra, Philippe Ricaud, Rachid Abida, Laaziz El Amraoui, Jean-Luc Attié, Emmanuel Rivière, Fabien Carminati, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4355–4373,Short summary
The study deals with the budget of water vapour (H2O) at the tropical tropopause. The MOCAGE-VALENTINA assimilation tool has been used to assimilate Microwave Limb Sounder H2O space-borne measurements within the 316–5 hPa range from August 2011 to March 2013. Diagnostics are developed to assess the quality of the analyses depending on several parameters. Sensitivity studies show the improvement on the analyses when assimilating measurements of better quality, mainly over the convective areas.
Hilke Oetjen, Vivienne H. Payne, Jessica L. Neu, Susan S. Kulawik, David P. Edwards, Annmarie Eldering, Helen M. Worden, and John R. Worden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10229–10239,Short summary
We developed and tested a strategy for combining TES and IASI free-tropospheric ozone data. A time series of the merged ozone data is presented for regional monthly means over the western US, Europe, and eastern Asia. We show that free-tropospheric ozone over Europe and the western US has remained relatively constant over the past decade but that, contrary to expectations, ozone over Asia in recent years does not continue the rapid rate of increase observed from 2004–2010.
Reinhold Spang, Lars Hoffmann, Michael Höpfner, Sabine Griessbach, Rolf Müller, Michael C. Pitts, Andrew M. W. Orr, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3619–3639,Short summary
We present a new classification approach for different polar stratospheric cloud types. The so-called Bayesian classifier estimates the most likely probability that one of the three PSC types (ice, NAT, or STS) dominates the characteristics of a measured infrared spectrum. The entire measurement period of the satellite instrument MIPAS from July 2002 to April 2013 is processed using the new classifier.
Raquel A. Silva, J. Jason West, Jean-François Lamarque, Drew T. Shindell, William J. Collins, Stig Dalsoren, Greg Faluvegi, Gerd Folberth, Larry W. Horowitz, Tatsuya Nagashima, Vaishali Naik, Steven T. Rumbold, Kengo Sudo, Toshihiko Takemura, Daniel Bergmann, Philip Cameron-Smith, Irene Cionni, Ruth M. Doherty, Veronika Eyring, Beatrice Josse, Ian A. MacKenzie, David Plummer, Mattia Righi, David S. Stevenson, Sarah Strode, Sophie Szopa, and Guang Zengast
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9847–9862,Short summary
Using ozone and PM2.5 concentrations from the ACCMIP ensemble of chemistry-climate models for the four Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios (RCPs), together with projections of future population and baseline mortality rates, we quantify the human premature mortality impacts of future ambient air pollution in 2030, 2050 and 2100, relative to 2000 concentrations. We also estimate the global mortality burden of ozone and PM2.5 in 2000 and each future period.
Wolfgang Woiwode, Michael Höpfner, Lei Bi, Michael C. Pitts, Lamont R. Poole, Hermann Oelhaf, Sergej Molleker, Stephan Borrmann, Marcus Klingebiel, Gennady Belyaev, Andreas Ebersoldt, Sabine Griessbach, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Thomas Gulde, Martina Krämer, Guido Maucher, Christof Piesch, Christian Rolf, Christian Sartorius, Reinhold Spang, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9505–9532,Short summary
The analysis of spectral signatures of a polar stratospheric cloud in airborne infrared remote sensing observations in the Arctic in combination with further collocated measurements supports the view that the observed cloud consisted of highly aspherical nitric acid trihydrate particles. A characteristic "shoulder-like" spectral signature may be exploited for identification of large, highly aspherical nitric acid trihydrate particles involved in denitrification of the polar winter stratosphere.
E. Eckert, A. Laeng, S. Lossow, S. Kellmann, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, N. Glatthor, M. Höpfner, M. Kiefer, H. Oelhaf, J. Orphal, B. Funke, U. Grabowski, F. Haenel, A. Linden, G. Wetzel, W. Woiwode, P. F. Bernath, C. Boone, G. S. Dutton, J. W. Elkins, A. Engel, J. C. Gille, F. Kolonjari, T. Sugita, G. C. Toon, and K. A. Walker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3355–3389,Short summary
We investigate the accuracy, precision and long-term stability of the MIPAS Envisat IMK/IAA CFC-11 (CCl3F) and CFC-12 (CCl2F2) products. For comparisons we use several data products from satellite, airplane and balloon-borne instruments as well as ground-based data. MIPAS Envisat CFC-11 has a slight high bias at the lower end of the profile. CFC-12 agrees well with other data products. The temporal stability is good up to ~ 30 km, but still leaves room for improvement.
Hélène Angot, Olivier Magand, Detlev Helmig, Philippe Ricaud, Boris Quennehen, Hubert Gallée, Massimo Del Guasta, Francesca Sprovieri, Nicola Pirrone, Joël Savarino, and Aurélien Dommergue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8249–8264,Short summary
While the Arctic has been extensively monitored, there is still much to be learned from the Antarctic continent regarding the processes that govern the budget of atmospheric mercury species. We report here the first year-round measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in the atmosphere and in snowpack interstitial air on the East Antarctic ice sheet. The striking reactivity observed on the Antarctic plateau most likely influences the cycle of atmospheric mercury on a continental scale.
Gonzalo González Abad, Alexander Vasilkov, Colin Seftor, Xiong Liu, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2797–2812,Short summary
The multi-spectral possibilities of the OMPS Nadir Mapper instrument are exploited here to perform formaldehyde retrievals. Orbiting the Earth at 824 km, OMPS observes the atmosphere in a time frame similar to instruments belonging to NASA's A-Train constellation, 01:30. We show that OMPS is well suited to measure formaldehyde despite its spectral resolution of 1nm. The comparison of OMPS retrievals with OMI products show good temporal correlation.
Christian Frankenberg, Susan S. Kulawik, Steven C. Wofsy, Frédéric Chevallier, Bruce Daube, Eric A. Kort, Christopher O'Dell, Edward T. Olsen, and Gregory Osterman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7867–7878,Short summary
We use observations from the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) flights from January 2009 through September 2011 to validate CO2 measurements from satellites (GOSAT, TES, AIRS) and atmospheric inversion models (CarbonTracker CT2013B, MACC v13r1).
Caroline R. Nowlan, Xiong Liu, James W. Leitch, Kelly Chance, Gonzalo González Abad, Cheng Liu, Peter Zoogman, Joshua Cole, Thomas Delker, William Good, Frank Murcray, Lyle Ruppert, Daniel Soo, Melanie B. Follette-Cook, Scott J. Janz, Matthew G. Kowalewski, Christopher P. Loughner, Kenneth E. Pickering, Jay R. Herman, Melinda R. Beaver, Russell W. Long, James J. Szykman, Laura M. Judd, Paul Kelley, Winston T. Luke, Xinrong Ren, and Jassim A. Al-Saadi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2647–2668,Short summary
The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) instrument is a remote sensing airborne instrument developed in support of future air quality satellite missions that will operate from geostationary orbit. GeoTASO flew in its first intensive field campaign during the DISCOVER-AQ 2013 Earth Venture Mission over Houston, Texas. This paper introduces the instrument and data analysis, and presents GeoTASO's first observations of NO2 at 250 m x 250 m spatial resolution.
Maya García-Comas, Manuel López-Puertas, Bernd Funke, Á. Aythami Jurado-Navarro, Angela Gardini, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, and Michael Höpfner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6701–6719,Short summary
We have analysed IR measurements of PMCs in the NH and SH from 2005 to 2012. This technique is sensitive to the total ice volume independent of particle size. For the first time, we have measured the total ice volume from the midlatitudes to the poles. The data indicate a layer of ice from 81 to 89 km and from the poles to 50–60º in each hemisphere, increasing near the poles. The ice density is larger in the NH than in the SH and located 1 km lower. PMCs also show a diurnal variation.
Ugo Cortesi, Samuele Del Bianco, Simone Ceccherini, Marco Gai, Bianca Maria Dinelli, Elisa Castelli, Hermann Oelhaf, Wolfgang Woiwode, Michael Höpfner, and Daniel Gerber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2267–2289,
Christopher Chan Miller, Daniel J. Jacob, Gonzalo González Abad, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4631–4639,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursors for photochemical smog. Glyoxal is an organic compound produced in the atmosphere from reactions of larger VOCs. OMI satellite observations of glyoxal show a large hotspot over the Pearl River delta. The hotspot can be explained by industrial paint and solvent emissions of aromatic VOCs. Our work shows OMI observations are consistent with current VOC emissions estimates, whereas previous work has suggested large underestimates.
Thomas E. Taylor, Christopher W. O'Dell, Christian Frankenberg, Philip T. Partain, Heather Q. Cronk, Andrey Savtchenko, Robert R. Nelson, Emily J. Rosenthal, Albert Y. Chang, Brenden Fisher, Gregory B. Osterman, Randy H. Pollock, David Crisp, Annmarie Eldering, and Michael R. Gunson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 973–989,Short summary
NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) is providing approximately 1 million soundings per day of the total column of carbon dioxide (XCO2). The retrieval of XCO2 can only be performed for soundings sufficiently free of cloud and aerosol. This work highlights comparisons of OCO-2 cloud screening algorithms to the MODIS cloud mask product. We find agreement approximately 85 % of the time with some significant spatial and small seasonal dependencies.
Melanie S. Hammer, Randall V. Martin, Aaron van Donkelaar, Virginie Buchard, Omar Torres, David A. Ridley, and Robert J. D. Spurr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2507–2523,Short summary
We interpret satellite observations to infer the global absorption properties of brown carbon (BrC) aerosols. We incorporate these BrC absorption properties into a chemical transport model to estimate global direct radiative effects and changes in hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations. To our knowledge, this is the first time the effect of BrC absorption on atmospheric photochemistry has been considered in a global chemical transport model.
Susan Kulawik, Debra Wunch, Christopher O'Dell, Christian Frankenberg, Maximilian Reuter, Tomohiro Oda, Frederic Chevallier, Vanessa Sherlock, Michael Buchwitz, Greg Osterman, Charles E. Miller, Paul O. Wennberg, David Griffith, Isamu Morino, Manvendra K. Dubey, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Justus Notholt, Frank Hase, Thorsten Warneke, Ralf Sussmann, John Robinson, Kimberly Strong, Matthias Schneider, Martine De Mazière, Kei Shiomi, Dietrich G. Feist, Laura T. Iraci, and Joyce Wolf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 683–709,Short summary
To accurately estimate source and sink locations of carbon dioxide, systematic errors in satellite measurements and models must be characterized. This paper examines two satellite data sets (GOSAT, launched 2009, and SCIAMACHY, launched 2002), and two models (CarbonTracker and MACC) vs. the TCCON CO2 validation data set. We assess biases and errors by season and latitude, satellite performance under averaging, and diurnal variability. Our findings are useful for assimilation of satellite data.
J. Guth, B. Josse, V. Marécal, M. Joly, and P. Hamer
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 137–160,
U. Jeong, J. Kim, C. Ahn, O. Torres, X. Liu, P. K. Bhartia, R. J. D. Spurr, D. Haffner, K. Chance, and B. N. Holben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 177–193,Short summary
An aerosol retrieval and error analysis algorithm using OMI measurements based on an optimal-estimation method was developed in this study. The aerosol retrievals were validated using the DRAGON campaign products. The estimated errors of the retrievals represented the actual biases between retrieval and AERONET measurements well. The retrievals, with their estimated uncertainties, are expected to be valuable for relevant studies, such as trace gas retrieval and data assimilation.
J. Plieninger, T. von Clarmann, G. P. Stiller, U. Grabowski, N. Glatthor, S. Kellmann, A. Linden, F. Haenel, M. Kiefer, M. Höpfner, A. Laeng, and S. Lossow
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4657–4670,Short summary
We present our revised CH4 and N2O profiles derived from MIPAS-ENVISAT spectra, which are now available for the entire measurement period. We describe the retrieval of the profiles and discuss the improvements compared to earlier versions and their effect on the mixing ratios. We analyse the averaging kernels and the resolution of the profiles. An error discussion for both gases is given.
J.-T. Lin, M.-Y. Liu, J.-Y. Xin, K. F. Boersma, R. Spurr, R. Martin, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11217–11241,Short summary
We conduct an improved OMI-based retrieval of tropospheric NO2 VCDs (POMINO) over China by explicitly accounting for aerosol optical effects and surface reflectance anisotropy. Compared to the traditional implicit aerosol treatment, an explicit treatment greatly lowers NO2 VCDs and subsequently estimated NOx emissions over eastern China, but with large spatiotemporal dependence. An explicit treatment also better captures high-pollution days. Effects of surface reflectance treatments are smaller.
W. Hewson, M. P. Barkley, G. Gonzalez Abad, H. Bösch, T. Kurosu, R. Spurr, and L. G. Tilstra
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4055–4074,Short summary
This work presents the air mass factor (AMF) algorithm in use at the University of Leicester, which introduces scene-specific variables into a per-observation full radiative transfer AMF calculation, including increasing spatial resolution of key environmental parameter databases, input variable area weighting, instrument-specific scattering weight calculation, and inclusion of an ozone vertical profile climatology.
J. L. Schnell, M. J. Prather, B. Josse, V. Naik, L. W. Horowitz, P. Cameron-Smith, D. Bergmann, G. Zeng, D. A. Plummer, K. Sudo, T. Nagashima, D. T. Shindell, G. Faluvegi, and S. A. Strode
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10581–10596,Short summary
We test global chemistry--climate models in their ability to simulate present-day surface ozone. Models are tested against observed hourly ozone from 4217 stations in North America and Europe that are averaged over 1°x1° grid cells. Using novel metrics, we find most models match the shape but not the amplitude of regional summertime diurnal and annual cycles and match the pattern but not the magnitude of summer ozone enhancement. Most also match the observed distribution of extreme episode sizes
P. D. Hamer, K. W. Bowman, D. K. Henze, J.-L. Attié, and V. Marécal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10645–10667,Short summary
Using a simplified air quality forecasting model, we explore how characteristics of air quality observations affect our ability to understand and predict ozone air pollution. We show that the photochemical conditions can strongly influence the observing priorities for ozone prediction, such as which species are observed and how well, when, and how frequently. High-freqency observations of ozone, NOx and HCHO in combination during the morning and afternoon are particularly advantageous.
J. Bak, X. Liu, J. H. Kim, M. T. Deland, and K. Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
This work demonstrated the interference of tenuous PMCs on OMI ozone profile retrievals above 6hPa. The presence of PMCs leads to the systematic biases of -2% at 2hPa and -20% at 0.5hPa in OMI retrievals, which are significantly correlated with brightness of PMCs. We perform simultaneous retrievals of PMC optical depth with ozone using optimal estimation technique, to reduce the interference on ozone profile retrievals. As a result, the negative OMI biases are reduced to within ±10%.
M. Coldewey-Egbers, D. G. Loyola, M. Koukouli, D. Balis, J.-C. Lambert, T. Verhoelst, J. Granville, M. van Roozendael, C. Lerot, R. Spurr, S. M. Frith, and C. Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3923–3940,
A. M. Toihir, H. Bencherif, V. Sivakumar, L. El Amraoui, T. Portafaix, and N. Mbatha
Ann. Geophys., 33, 1135–1146,
V. Marécal, V.-H. Peuch, C. Andersson, S. Andersson, J. Arteta, M. Beekmann, A. Benedictow, R. Bergström, B. Bessagnet, A. Cansado, F. Chéroux, A. Colette, A. Coman, R. L. Curier, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, A. Drouin, H. Elbern, E. Emili, R. J. Engelen, H. J. Eskes, G. Foret, E. Friese, M. Gauss, C. Giannaros, J. Guth, M. Joly, E. Jaumouillé, B. Josse, N. Kadygrov, J. W. Kaiser, K. Krajsek, J. Kuenen, U. Kumar, N. Liora, E. Lopez, L. Malherbe, I. Martinez, D. Melas, F. Meleux, L. Menut, P. Moinat, T. Morales, J. Parmentier, A. Piacentini, M. Plu, A. Poupkou, S. Queguiner, L. Robertson, L. Rouïl, M. Schaap, A. Segers, M. Sofiev, L. Tarasson, M. Thomas, R. Timmermans, Á. Valdebenito, P. van Velthoven, R. van Versendaal, J. Vira, and A. Ung
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2777–2813,Short summary
This paper describes the air quality forecasting system over Europe put in place in the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate projects. It provides daily and 4-day forecasts and analyses for the previous day for major gas and particulate pollutants and their main precursors. These products are based on a multi-model approach using seven state-of-the-art models developed in Europe. An evaluation of the performance of the system is discussed in the paper.
S. Hayashida, X. Liu, A. Ono, K. Yang, and K. Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9865–9881,Short summary
The lower tropospheric ozone distribution maps were first obtained from the recent retrieval products of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite. We found significant enhancement of ozone in the lower troposphere over central and eastern China (CEC), with Shandong Province as its center, and most notable in June in any given year. Similar seasonal variations were observed throughout the 9-year OMI measurement period of 2005 to 2013.
C. Di Biagio, L. Doppler, C. Gaimoz, N. Grand, G. Ancellet, J.-C. Raut, M. Beekmann, A. Borbon, K. Sartelet, J.-L. Attié, F. Ravetta, and P. Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9611–9630,Short summary
Observations from this study indicate that continental pollution largely affects the atmospheric composition and structure of the western Mediterranean basin. Pollution plumes reach 3000-4000 m in altitude and present a very complex and highly stratified structure, characterized by fresh and aged layers both in the boundary layer and in the free troposphere. Also we report the observations of high levels of ultrafine particles over the basin, possibly linked to new particle formation events.
J. R. Worden, A. J. Turner, A. Bloom, S. S. Kulawik, J. Liu, M. Lee, R. Weidner, K. Bowman, C. Frankenberg, R. Parker, and V. H. Payne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3433–3445,Short summary
Here we demonstrate the potential for estimating lower tropospheric CH4 concentrations through the combination of free-tropospheric methane measurements from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and XCH4 (dry-mole air fraction of methane) from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite - Thermal And Near-infrared for carbon Observation (GOSAT TANSO).
T. Guggenmoser, J. Blank, A. Kleinert, T. Latzko, J. Ungermann, F. Friedl-Vallon, M. Höpfner, M. Kaufmann, E. Kretschmer, G. Maucher, T. Neubert, H. Oelhaf, P. Preusse, M. Riese, H. Rongen, M. K. Sha, O. Sumińska-Ebersoldt, and V. Tan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3147–3161,Short summary
The plane-carried Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) measures the thermal radiation emitted by gases and particles in the atmosphere, in a height range of about 5-20 km. In between these measurements, GLORIA is pointed at known radiation sources for calibration. Noise in these calibration measurements can lead to artefacts in the final products. In this paper, we present new techniques which exploit GLORIA's imaging capabilities to reduce these noise effects.
M. Höpfner, C. D. Boone, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, A. Günther, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, S. Lossow, H. C. Pumphrey, W. G. Read, A. Roiger, G. Stiller, H. Schlager, T. von Clarmann, and K. Wissmüller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7017–7037,
W. Woiwode, O. Sumińska-Ebersoldt, H. Oelhaf, M. Höpfner, G. V. Belyaev, A. Ebersoldt, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, T. Gulde, M. Kaufmann, A. Kleinert, M. Krämer, E. Kretschmer, T. Kulessa, G. Maucher, T. Neubert, C. Piesch, P. Preusse, M. Riese, H. Rongen, C. Sartorius, G. Schardt, A. Schönfeld, D. Schuettemeyer, M. K. Sha, F. Stroh, J. Ungermann, C. M. Volk, and J. Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2509–2520,
J. Ungermann, J. Blank, M. Dick, A. Ebersoldt, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Giez, T. Guggenmoser, M. Höpfner, T. Jurkat, M. Kaufmann, S. Kaufmann, A. Kleinert, M. Krämer, T. Latzko, H. Oelhaf, F. Olchewski, P. Preusse, C. Rolf, J. Schillings, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, V. Tan, N. Thomas, C. Voigt, A. Zahn, M. Zöger, and M. Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2473–2489,Short summary
The GLORIA sounder is an airborne infrared limb-imager combining a two-dimensional infrared detector with a Fourier transform spectrometer. It was operated aboard the new German Gulfstream G550 research aircraft HALO during the TACTS and ESMVAL campaigns in summer 2012. This paper describes the retrieval of temperature, as well as H2O, HNO3, and O3 cross sections from GLORIA dynamics mode spectra. A high correlation is achieved between the remote sensing and the in situ trace gas measurements.
V. Buchard, A. M. da Silva, P. R. Colarco, A. Darmenov, C. A. Randles, R. Govindaraju, O. Torres, J. Campbell, and R. Spurr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5743–5760,Short summary
MERRAero is an aerosol reanalysis based on the GEOS-5 earth system model that incorporates an online aerosol module and assimilation of AOD from MODIS sensors. This study assesses the quality of MERRAero absorption using independent OMI observations. In addition to comparisons to OMI absorption AOD, we have developed a radiative transfer interface to simulate the UV aerosol index from assimilated aerosol fields at OMI footprint. Also, we fully diagnose the model using MISR, AERONET and CALIPSO.
J. Flemming, V. Huijnen, J. Arteta, P. Bechtold, A. Beljaars, A.-M. Blechschmidt, M. Diamantakis, R. J. Engelen, A. Gaudel, A. Inness, L. Jones, B. Josse, E. Katragkou, V. Marecal, V.-H. Peuch, A. Richter, M. G. Schultz, O. Stein, and A. Tsikerdekis
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 975–1003,Short summary
We describe modules for atmospheric chemistry, wet and dry deposition and lightning NO production, which have been newly introduced in ECMWF's weather forecasting model. With that model, we want to forecast global air pollution as part of the European Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service. We show that the new model results compare as well or better with in situ and satellite observations of ozone, CO, NO2, SO2 and formaldehyde as the previous model.
M. J. Alvarado, V. H. Payne, K. E. Cady-Pereira, J. D. Hegarty, S. S. Kulawik, K. J. Wecht, J. R. Worden, J. V. Pittman, and S. C. Wofsy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 965–985,
B. Sič, L. El Amraoui, V. Marécal, B. Josse, J. Arteta, J. Guth, M. Joly, and P. D. Hamer
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 381–408,
C. Liu, X. Liu, M. G. Kowalewski, S. J. Janz, G. González Abad, K. E. Pickering, K. Chance, and L. N. Lamsal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 751–759,Short summary
We characterize the wavelengths and slit functions of Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper (ACAM) measurements in ~304--500 nm through the cross-correlation technique. It is necessary to account for atmospheric gas absorption and the ring effect. The derived broadened Gaussian slit functions agree very well with laboratory measurements. Trace gas retrieval comparisons demonstrate that the cross-correlation technique can be reliably used to characterize slit functions.
P. Schneider, W. A. Lahoz, and R. van der A
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1205–1220,Short summary
We use a homogeneous 10-year record of satellite data to study recent trends in NO2 over the world's major urban agglomerations. The results indicate distinct spatial patterns in trends, with moderate but consistent reductions in NO2 throughout most developed countries and rapid increases of up to 15 % per year over many sites in Asia, Africa, and South America. We also show links between urban NO2 trends and economic as well as demographic factors, and how the latter drive regional differences.
J. Bak, X. Liu, J. H. Kim, K. Chance, and D. P. Haffner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 667–683,
N. Glatthor, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, B. Funke, S. Lossow, E. Eckert, U. Grabowski, S. Kellmann, A. Linden, K. A. Walker, and A. Wiegele
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 563–582,
M. Kaufmann, J. Blank, T. Guggenmoser, J. Ungermann, A. Engel, M. Ern, F. Friedl-Vallon, D. Gerber, J. U. Grooß, G. Guenther, M. Höpfner, A. Kleinert, E. Kretschmer, Th. Latzko, G. Maucher, T. Neubert, H. Nordmeyer, H. Oelhaf, F. Olschewski, J. Orphal, P. Preusse, H. Schlager, H. Schneider, D. Schuettemeyer, F. Stroh, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, B. Vogel, C. M. Volk, W. Woiwode, and M. Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 81–95,
G. González Abad, X. Liu, K. Chance, H. Wang, T. P. Kurosu, and R. Suleiman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 19–32,Short summary
We present and discuss the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) formaldehyde retrieval algorithm for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), which is the operational retrieval for NASA OMI H2CO.
H. Oetjen, V. H. Payne, S. S. Kulawik, A. Eldering, J. Worden, D. P. Edwards, G. L. Francis, H. M. Worden, C. Clerbaux, J. Hadji-Lazaro, and D. Hurtmans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4223–4236,Short summary
We apply the TES ozone retrieval algorithm to IASI radiances and characterise the uncertainties and information content of the retrieved ozone profiles. We find that our biases with respect to sondes and our degrees of freedom for signal for ozone are comparable to previously published results from other IASI ozone algorithms. We find that predicted and empirical errors are consistent. In general, the precision of the IASI ozone profiles is better than 20%.
A. Kleinert, F. Friedl-Vallon, T. Guggenmoser, M. Höpfner, T. Neubert, R. Ribalda, M. K. Sha, J. Ungermann, J. Blank, A. Ebersoldt, E. Kretschmer, T. Latzko, H. Oelhaf, F. Olschewski, and P. Preusse
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4167–4184,
A. Laeng, U. Grabowski, T. von Clarmann, G. Stiller, N. Glatthor, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, S. Lossow, V. Sofieva, I. Petropavlovskikh, D. Hubert, T. Bathgate, P. Bernath, C. D. Boone, C. Clerbaux, P. Coheur, R. Damadeo, D. Degenstein, S. Frith, L. Froidevaux, J. Gille, K. Hoppel, M. McHugh, Y. Kasai, J. Lumpe, N. Rahpoe, G. Toon, T. Sano, M. Suzuki, J. Tamminen, J. Urban, K. Walker, M. Weber, and J. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3971–3987,
C. Chan Miller, G. Gonzalez Abad, H. Wang, X. Liu, T. Kurosu, D. J. Jacob, and K. Chance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3891–3907,
A. T. J. de Laat, I. Aben, M. Deeter, P. Nédélec, H. Eskes, J.-L. Attié, P. Ricaud, R. Abida, L. El Amraoui, and J. Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3783–3799,
V. H. Payne, M. J. Alvarado, K. E. Cady-Pereira, J. R. Worden, S. S. Kulawik, and E. V. Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3737–3749,Short summary
Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) plays an important role in the distribution of lower-atmospheric ozone. PAN can be transported far from the original pollution source, leading to ozone formation and degraded air quality in remote areas. Satellite observations from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) are sensitive to PAN at lower altitude than previous global data sets. We describe characteristics of the data and show elevated PAN associated with boreal fires and outflow of Asian pollution.
W. Woiwode, J.-U. Grooß, H. Oelhaf, S. Molleker, S. Borrmann, A. Ebersoldt, W. Frey, T. Gulde, S. Khaykin, G. Maucher, C. Piesch, and J. Orphal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11525–11544,
P. Ricaud, B. Sič, L. El Amraoui, J.-L. Attié, R. Zbinden, P. Huszar, S. Szopa, J. Parmentier, N. Jaidan, M. Michou, R. Abida, F. Carminati, D. Hauglustaine, T. August, J. Warner, R. Imasu, N. Saitoh, and V.-H. Peuch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11427–11446,
F. Friedl-Vallon, T. Gulde, F. Hase, A. Kleinert, T. Kulessa, G. Maucher, T. Neubert, F. Olschewski, C. Piesch, P. Preusse, H. Rongen, C. Sartorius, H. Schneider, A. Schönfeld, V. Tan, N. Bayer, J. Blank, R. Dapp, A. Ebersoldt, H. Fischer, F. Graf, T. Guggenmoser, M. Höpfner, M. Kaufmann, E. Kretschmer, T. Latzko, H. Nordmeyer, H. Oelhaf, J. Orphal, M. Riese, G. Schardt, J. Schillings, M. K. Sha, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, and J. Ungermann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3565–3577,
R. L. Herman, J. E. Cherry, J. Young, J. M. Welker, D. Noone, S. S. Kulawik, and J. Worden
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3127–3138,
L. El Amraoui, J.-L. Attié, P. Ricaud, W. A. Lahoz, A. Piacentini, V.-H. Peuch, J. X. Warner, R. Abida, J. Barré, and R. Zbinden
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3035–3057,
N. Hao, M. E. Koukouli, A. Inness, P. Valks, D. G. Loyola, W. Zimmer, D. S. Balis, I. Zyrichidou, M. Van Roozendael, C. Lerot, and R. J. D. Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2937–2951,
E. A. Marais, D. J. Jacob, A. Guenther, K. Chance, T. P. Kurosu, J. G. Murphy, C. E. Reeves, and H. O. T. Pye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7693–7703,
M. Riese, H. Oelhaf, P. Preusse, J. Blank, M. Ern, F. Friedl-Vallon, H. Fischer, T. Guggenmoser, M. Höpfner, P. Hoor, M. Kaufmann, J. Orphal, F. Plöger, R. Spang, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, J. Ungermann, B. Vogel, and W. Woiwode
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1915–1928,
H. Wang, X. Liu, K. Chance, G. González Abad, and C. Chan Miller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1901–1913,
P. Zoogman, D. J. Jacob, K. Chance, X. Liu, M. Lin, A. Fiore, and K. Travis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6261–6271,
F. Carminati, P. Ricaud, J.-P. Pommereau, E. Rivière, S. Khaykin, J.-L. Attié, and J. Warner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6195–6211,
E. W. Chiou, P. K. Bhartia, R. D. McPeters, D. G. Loyola, M. Coldewey-Egbers, V. E. Fioletov, M. Van Roozendael, R. Spurr, C. Lerot, and S. M. Frith
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1681–1692,
L. Grellier, V. Marécal, B. Josse, P. D. Hamer, T. J. Roberts, A. Aiuppa, and M. Pirre
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
F. Friederich, M. Sinnhuber, B. Funke, T. von Clarmann, and J. Orphal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4055–4064,
J.-T. Lin, R. V. Martin, K. F. Boersma, M. Sneep, P. Stammes, R. Spurr, P. Wang, M. Van Roozendael, K. Clémer, and H. Irie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1441–1461,
E. Emili, B. Barret, S. Massart, E. Le Flochmoen, A. Piacentini, L. El Amraoui, O. Pannekoucke, and D. Cariolle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 177–198,
J. X. Warner, R. Yang, Z. Wei, F. Carminati, A. Tangborn, Z. Sun, W. Lahoz, J.-L. Attié, L. El Amraoui, and B. Duncan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 103–114,
J. Warner, F. Carminati, Z. Wei, W. Lahoz, and J.-L. Attié
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12469–12479,
R. M. Zbinden, V. Thouret, P. Ricaud, F. Carminati, J.-P. Cammas, and P. Nédélec
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12363–12388,
R. Hossaini, H. Mantle, M. P. Chipperfield, S. A. Montzka, P. Hamer, F. Ziska, B. Quack, K. Krüger, S. Tegtmeier, E. Atlas, S. Sala, A. Engel, H. Bönisch, T. Keber, D. Oram, G. Mills, C. Ordóñez, A. Saiz-Lopez, N. Warwick, Q. Liang, W. Feng, F. Moore, B. R. Miller, V. Marécal, N. A. D. Richards, M. Dorf, and K. Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11819–11838,
G. Liu, J. Liu, D. W. Tarasick, V. E. Fioletov, J. J. Jin, O. Moeini, X. Liu, C. E. Sioris, and M. Osman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10659–10675,
M. Höpfner, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, J. Orphal, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, B. Funke, and C. D. Boone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10405–10423,
J.-L. Baray, Y. Courcoux, P. Keckhut, T. Portafaix, P. Tulet, J.-P. Cammas, A. Hauchecorne, S. Godin Beekmann, M. De Mazière, C. Hermans, F. Desmet, K. Sellegri, A. Colomb, M. Ramonet, J. Sciare, C. Vuillemin, C. Hoareau, D. Dionisi, V. Duflot, H. Vérèmes, J. Porteneuve, F. Gabarrot, T. Gaudo, J.-M. Metzger, G. Payen, J. Leclair de Bellevue, C. Barthe, F. Posny, P. Ricaud, A. Abchiche, and R. Delmas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2865–2877,
P. Huszar, H. Teyssèdre, M. Michou, A. Voldoire, D. J. L. Olivié, D. Saint-Martin, D. Cariolle, S. Senesi, D. Salas Y Melia, A. Alias, F. Karcher, P. Ricaud, and T. Halenka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10027–10048,
J. P. Parrella, K. Chance, R. J. Salawitch, T. Canty, M. Dorf, and K. Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2549–2561,
J. Cuesta, M. Eremenko, X. Liu, G. Dufour, Z. Cai, M. Höpfner, T. von Clarmann, P. Sellitto, G. Foret, B. Gaubert, M. Beekmann, J. Orphal, K. Chance, R. Spurr, and J.-M. Flaud
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9675–9693,
P. S. Kim, D. J. Jacob, X. Liu, J. X. Warner, K. Yang, K. Chance, V. Thouret, and P. Nedelec
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9321–9335,
Y. Kasai, H. Sagawa, D. Kreyling, E. Dupuy, P. Baron, J. Mendrok, K. Suzuki, T. O. Sato, T. Nishibori, S. Mizobuchi, K. Kikuchi, T. Manabe, H. Ozeki, T. Sugita, M. Fujiwara, Y. Irimajiri, K. A. Walker, P. F. Bernath, C. Boone, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, J. Orphal, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, E. J. Llewellyn, D. Degenstein, A. E. Bourassa, N. D. Lloyd, L. Froidevaux, M. Birk, G. Wagner, F. Schreier, J. Xu, P. Vogt, T. Trautmann, and M. Yasui
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2311–2338,
J. Bak, X. Liu, J. C. Wei, L. L. Pan, K. Chance, and J. H. Kim
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2239–2254,
J.-F. Lamarque, F. Dentener, J. McConnell, C.-U. Ro, M. Shaw, R. Vet, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Dalsoren, R. Doherty, G. Faluvegi, S. J. Ghan, B. Josse, Y. H. Lee, I. A. MacKenzie, D. Plummer, D. T. Shindell, R. B. Skeie, D. S. Stevenson, S. Strode, G. Zeng, M. Curran, D. Dahl-Jensen, S. Das, D. Fritzsche, and M. Nolan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7997–8018,
P. Sellitto, G. Dufour, M. Eremenko, J. Cuesta, V.-H. Peuch, A. Eldering, D. P. Edwards, and J.-M. Flaud
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1869–1881,
V. Naik, A. Voulgarakis, A. M. Fiore, L. W. Horowitz, J.-F. Lamarque, M. Lin, M. J. Prather, P. J. Young, D. Bergmann, P. J. Cameron-Smith, I. Cionni, W. J. Collins, S. B. Dalsøren, R. Doherty, V. Eyring, G. Faluvegi, G. A. Folberth, B. Josse, Y. H. Lee, I. A. MacKenzie, T. Nagashima, T. P. C. van Noije, D. A. Plummer, M. Righi, S. T. Rumbold, R. Skeie, D. T. Shindell, D. S. Stevenson, S. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, and G. Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5277–5298,
C. Brühl, J. Lelieveld, M. Höpfner, and H. Tost
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
K. W. Bowman, D. T. Shindell, H. M. Worden, J.F. Lamarque, P. J. Young, D. S. Stevenson, Z. Qu, M. de la Torre, D. Bergmann, P. J. Cameron-Smith, W. J. Collins, R. Doherty, S. B. Dalsøren, G. Faluvegi, G. Folberth, L. W. Horowitz, B. M. Josse, Y. H. Lee, I. A. MacKenzie, G. Myhre, T. Nagashima, V. Naik, D. A. Plummer, S. T. Rumbold, R. B. Skeie, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, A. Voulgarakis, G. Zeng, S. S. Kulawik, A. M. Aghedo, and J. R. Worden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4057–4072,
A. Vasilkov, J. Joiner, and R. Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 981–990,
D. Fu, J. R. Worden, X. Liu, S. S. Kulawik, K. W. Bowman, and V. Natraj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3445–3462,
D. S. Stevenson, P. J. Young, V. Naik, J.-F. Lamarque, D. T. Shindell, A. Voulgarakis, R. B. Skeie, S. B. Dalsoren, G. Myhre, T. K. Berntsen, G. A. Folberth, S. T. Rumbold, W. J. Collins, I. A. MacKenzie, R. M. Doherty, G. Zeng, T. P. C. van Noije, A. Strunk, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, D. A. Plummer, S. A. Strode, L. Horowitz, Y. H. Lee, S. Szopa, K. Sudo, T. Nagashima, B. Josse, I. Cionni, M. Righi, V. Eyring, A. Conley, K. W. Bowman, O. Wild, and A. Archibald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3063–3085,
F. Friederich, T. von Clarmann, B. Funke, H. Nieder, J. Orphal, M. Sinnhuber, G. P. Stiller, and J. M. Wissing
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2531–2539,
A. Voulgarakis, V. Naik, J.-F. Lamarque, D. T. Shindell, P. J. Young, M. J. Prather, O. Wild, R. D. Field, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, I. Cionni, W. J. Collins, S. B. Dalsøren, R. M. Doherty, V. Eyring, G. Faluvegi, G. A. Folberth, L. W. Horowitz, B. Josse, I. A. MacKenzie, T. Nagashima, D. A. Plummer, M. Righi, S. T. Rumbold, D. S. Stevenson, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, and G. Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2563–2587,
P. J. Young, A. T. Archibald, K. W. Bowman, J.-F. Lamarque, V. Naik, D. S. Stevenson, S. Tilmes, A. Voulgarakis, O. Wild, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, I. Cionni, W. J. Collins, S. B. Dalsøren, R. M. Doherty, V. Eyring, G. Faluvegi, L. W. Horowitz, B. Josse, Y. H. Lee, I. A. MacKenzie, T. Nagashima, D. A. Plummer, M. Righi, S. T. Rumbold, R. B. Skeie, D. T. Shindell, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, and G. Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2063–2090,
J.-F. Lamarque, D. T. Shindell, B. Josse, P. J. Young, I. Cionni, V. Eyring, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, W. J. Collins, R. Doherty, S. Dalsoren, G. Faluvegi, G. Folberth, S. J. Ghan, L. W. Horowitz, Y. H. Lee, I. A. MacKenzie, T. Nagashima, V. Naik, D. Plummer, M. Righi, S. T. Rumbold, M. Schulz, R. B. Skeie, D. S. Stevenson, S. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, A. Voulgarakis, and G. Zeng
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 179–206,
J. Bak, J. H. Kim, X. Liu, K. Chance, and J. Kim
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 239–249,
S. Kellmann, T. von Clarmann, G. P. Stiller, E. Eckert, N. Glatthor, M. Höpfner, M. Kiefer, J. Orphal, B. Funke, U. Grabowski, A. Linden, G. S. Dutton, and J. W. Elkins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11857–11875,
G. Lacressonnière, V.-H. Peuch, J. Arteta, B. Josse, M. Joly, V. Marécal, D. Saint Martin, M. Déqué, and L. Watson
Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 1565–1587,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Technique: Remote Sensing | Topic: Instruments and PlatformsPerformance of an open-path near-infrared measurement system for measurements of CO2 and CH4 during extended field trialsDetermination of the emission rates of CO2 point sources with airborne lidarThe GHGSat-D imaging spectrometerThermal and near-infrared sensor for carbon observation Fourier transform spectrometer-2 (TANSO-FTS-2) on the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite-2 (GOSAT-2) during its first year in orbitPrediction model for diffuser-induced spectral features in imaging spectrometersCharacterization and potential for reducing optical resonances in Fourier transform infrared spectrometers of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC)MUCCnet: Munich Urban Carbon Column networkEmission Monitoring Mobile Experiment (EMME): an overview and first results of the St. Petersburg megacity campaign 2019Effect of polyoxymethylene (POM-H Delrin) off-gassing within the Pandora head sensor on direct-sun and multi-axis formaldehyde column measurements in 2016–2019A powerful lidar system capable of 1 h measurements of water vapour in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere as well as the temperature in the upper stratosphere and mesosphereFirst high-resolution tropospheric NO2 observations from the Ultraviolet Visible Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer (UVHIS)Quantitative imaging of volcanic SO2 plumes using Fabry–Pérot interferometer correlation spectroscopySpectral Calibration of the MethaneAIR InstrumentTropospheric NO2 Measurements Using a Three-wavelength Optical Parametric Oscillator Differential Absorption LidarA multi-purpose, multi-rotor drone system for long range and high-altitude volcanic gas plume measurementsThree decades of tropospheric ozone lidar development at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, GermanySolar tracker with optical feedback and continuous rotationAssessment of global total column water vapor sounding using a spaceborne differential absorption radarThe design and development of a tuneable and portable radiation source for in situ spectrometer characterisationIntercomparison of low- and high-resolution infrared spectrometers for ground-based solar remote sensing measurements of total column concentrations of CO2, CH4, and CORecommendations for spectral fitting of SO2 from miniature multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurementsAtmospheric ammonia (NH3) over the Paris megacity: 9 years of total column observations from ground-based infrared remote sensingIn-flight calibration results of the TROPOMI payload on board the Sentinel-5 Precursor satelliteThe use of the 1.27 µm O2 absorption band for greenhouse gas monitoring from space and application to MicroCarbTowards spaceborne monitoring of localized CO2 emissions: an instrument concept and first performance assessmentEvaluating different methods for elevation calibration of MAX-DOAS (Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) instruments during the CINDI-2 campaignSpectral sizing of a coarse-spectral-resolution satellite sensor for XCO2Benefit of ozone observations from Sentinel-5P and future Sentinel-4 missions on tropospheric compositionPerformance evaluation of THz Atmospheric Limb Sounder (TALIS) of ChinaIn-flight calibration and monitoring of the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) short-wave infrared (SWIR) moduleCaution with spectroscopic NO2 reference cells (cuvettes)Full-azimuthal imaging-DOAS observations of NO2 and O4 during CINDI-2Recent improvements of long-path DOAS measurements: impact on accuracy and stability of short-term and automated long-term observationsGround-based millimetre-wave measurements of middle-atmospheric carbon monoxide above Ny-Ålesund (78.9° N, 11.9° E)A scanning strategy optimized for signal-to-noise ratio for the Geostationary Carbon Cycle Observatory (GeoCarb) instrumentThe OCO-3 mission: measurement objectives and expected performance based on 1 year of simulated dataLaser frequency stabilization based on a universal sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS instrumentation for the potential application in atmospheric lidarBuilding the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON): long-term stability and ensemble performance of the EM27/SUN Fourier transform spectrometerTowards imaging of atmospheric trace gases using Fabry–Pérot interferometer correlation spectroscopy in the UV and visible spectral rangeUpgrade and automation of the JPL Table Mountain Facility tropospheric ozone lidar (TMTOL) for near-ground ozone profiling and satellite validationSpatial heterodyne observations of water (SHOW) from a high-altitude airplane: characterization, performance, and first resultsDemonstration of an off-axis parabolic receiver for near-range retrieval of lidar ozone profilesProfiling of CH4 background mixing ratio in the lower troposphere with Raman lidar: a feasibility experimentA fully autonomous ozone, aerosol and nighttime water vapor lidar: a synergistic approach to profiling the atmosphere in the Canadian oil sands regionPre-launch calibration results of the TROPOMI payload on-board the Sentinel-5 Precursor satelliteLevel 1b error budget for MIPAS on ENVISATThe Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment: review of in-flight performance and new reprocessed 1995–2011 level 1 productGreenHouse gas Observations of the Stratosphere and Troposphere (GHOST): an airborne shortwave-infrared spectrometer for remote sensing of greenhouse gasesDetermination of the TROPOMI-SWIR instrument spectral response functionCharacterization of blackbody inhomogeneity and its effect on the retrieval results of the GLORIA instrument
Nicholas M. Deutscher, Travis A. Naylor, Christopher G. R. Caldow, Hamish L. McDougall, Alex G. Carter, and David W. T. Griffith
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3119–3130,Short summary
This work describes the performance of an open-path measurement system for greenhouse gases in an extended field trial. The instrument obtained measurement repeatability of 0.1 % or better for CO2 and CH4 measurements over a 1.55 km one-way pathway. Comparison to co-located in situ measurements allows characterisation of biases relative to global reference scales. The research was done to show the applicability of the technique and its ability to detect atmospheric-relevant sources and sinks.
Sebastian Wolff, Gerhard Ehret, Christoph Kiemle, Axel Amediek, Mathieu Quatrevalet, Martin Wirth, and Andreas Fix
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2717–2736,Short summary
We report on CO2 emissions of a coal-fired power plant derived from flight measurements performed with the IPDA lidar CHARM-F during the CoMet campaign in spring 2018. Despite the results being in broad agreement with reported emissions, we observe strong variations between successive flyovers. Using a high-resolution large eddy simulation, we identify strong atmospheric turbulence as the cause for the variations and recommend more favorable measurement conditions for future campaign planning.
Dylan Jervis, Jason McKeever, Berke O. A. Durak, James J. Sloan, David Gains, Daniel J. Varon, Antoine Ramier, Mathias Strupler, and Ewan Tarrant
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2127–2140,Short summary
We describe how the GHGSat-D demonstration satellite is designed and operated in order to measure greenhouse gas emissions from different types of industrial facilities. The distinguishing features of GHGSat-D, or
Claire, are its compact size (< 15 kg) and high spatial resolution (< 50 m). We give a mathematical model of the instrument and describe the techniques used to infer a methane concentration from a measurement of the sunlight that has reflected off the Earth's surface.
Hiroshi Suto, Fumie Kataoka, Nobuhiro Kikuchi, Robert O. Knuteson, Andre Butz, Markus Haun, Henry Buijs, Kei Shiomi, Hiroko Imai, and Akihiko Kuze
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2013–2039,Short summary
The Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite-2 (GOSAT-2), in orbit since October 2018, is the follow-up mission of GOSAT, which has been operating since January 2009. Both satellites are dedicated to the monitoring of global carbon dioxide and methane to further knowledge of the global carbon cycle. This paper has reported on the function and performance of the TANSO-FTS-2 instrument, level-1 data processing, and calibrations for the first year of GOSAT-2 observation.
Florian Richter, Corneli Keim, Jérôme Caron, Jasper Krauser, Dennis Weise, and Mark Wenig
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1561–1571,Short summary
Much effort has gone into obtaining crucial information about the progress of climate change, which depends on trace gases in the Earth's atmosphere. Satellite-based imaging spectrometers are used to record the Earth's reflectance in order to quantify the concentration of relevant trace gases. This work contributes an approach to a well-known calibration uncertainty regarding diffuser speckle and could significantly reduce overheads in the future planning phases of such instruments.
Thomas Blumenstock, Frank Hase, Axel Keens, Denis Czurlok, Orfeo Colebatch, Omaira Garcia, David W. T. Griffith, Michel Grutter, James W. Hannigan, Pauli Heikkinen, Pascal Jeseck, Nicholas Jones, Rigel Kivi, Erik Lutsch, Maria Makarova, Hamud K. Imhasin, Johan Mellqvist, Isamu Morino, Tomoo Nagahama, Justus Notholt, Ivan Ortega, Mathias Palm, Uwe Raffalski, Markus Rettinger, John Robinson, Matthias Schneider, Christian Servais, Dan Smale, Wolfgang Stremme, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, and Voltaire A. Velazco
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1239–1252,Short summary
This study investigates the level of channeling (optical resonances) of each FTIR spectrometer within the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). Since the air gap of the beam splitter is a significant source of channeling, we propose new beam splitters with an increased wedge of the air gap. This study shows the potential for reducing channeling in the FTIR spectrometers operated by the NDACC, thereby increasing the quality of recorded spectra across the network.
Florian Dietrich, Jia Chen, Benno Voggenreiter, Patrick Aigner, Nico Nachtigall, and Björn Reger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1111–1126,Short summary
Climate change is one of the defining issues of our time. However, most of the current emission estimates are based on calculations, not on actual measurements as it is difficult to quantify the emissions of large sources such as cities. This study shows how to use the relatively new approach of column measurements to quantify urban greenhouse gas emissions in an exact way using only a few compact measurement systems. The approach can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation policies.
Maria V. Makarova, Carlos Alberti, Dmitry V. Ionov, Frank Hase, Stefani C. Foka, Thomas Blumenstock, Thorsten Warneke, Yana A. Virolainen, Vladimir S. Kostsov, Matthias Frey, Anatoly V. Poberovskii, Yuri M. Timofeyev, Nina N. Paramonova, Kristina A. Volkova, Nikita A. Zaitsev, Egor Y. Biryukov, Sergey I. Osipov, Boris K. Makarov, Alexander V. Polyakov, Viktor M. Ivakhov, Hamud Kh. Imhasin, and Eugene F. Mikhailov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1047–1073,Short summary
Fundamental understanding of the major processes driving climate change is a key problem which is to be solved, not only on a global but also on a regional scale. The Emission Monitoring Mobile Experiment (EMME) carried out in 2019 with two portable Bruker EM27/SUN spectrometers as core instruments provided new information on the emissions of greenhouse (CO2, CH4) and reactive (CO, NOx) gases from St. Petersburg (Russia), which is the largest northern megacity with a population of 5 million.
Elena Spinei, Martin Tiefengraber, Moritz Müller, Manuel Gebetsberger, Alexander Cede, Luke Valin, James Szykman, Andrew Whitehill, Alexander Kotsakis, Fernando Santos, Nader Abbuhasan, Xiaoyi Zhao, Vitali Fioletov, Sum Chi Lee, and Robert Swap
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 647–663,Short summary
Plastics are widely used in everyday life and scientific equipment. This paper presents Delrin plastic off-gassing as a function of temperature on the atmospheric measurements of formaldehyde by Pandora spectroscopic instruments. The sealed telescope assembly containing Delrin components emitted large amounts of formaldehyde at 30–45 °C, interfering with the Pandora measurements. These results have a broader implication since electronic products often experience the same temperature.
Lisa Klanner, Katharina Höveler, Dina Khordakova, Matthias Perfahl, Christian Rolf, Thomas Trickl, and Hannes Vogelmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 531–555,Short summary
The importance of water vapour as the most influential greenhouse gas and for air composition calls for detailed investigations. The details of the highly inhomogeneous distribution of water vapour can be determined with lidar, the very low concentrations at high altitudes imposing a major challenge. An existing water-vapour lidar in the Bavarian Alps was recently complemented by a powerful Raman lidar that provides water vapour up to 20 km and temperature up to 90 km within just 1 h.
Liang Xi, Fuqi Si, Yu Jiang, Haijin Zhou, Kai Zhan, Zhen Chang, Xiaohan Qiu, and Dongshang Yang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 435–454,Short summary
In this paper, we present a novel airborne imaging differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument: the Ultraviolet Visible Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer (UVHIS), which is developed for trace gas monitoring and pollution mapping. In the first demonstration flight on 23 June 2018, the UVHIS instrument clearly detected several NO2 emission plumes transporting from south to north. UVHIS NO2 vertical columns are well correlated with ground-based mobile DOAS observations.
Christopher Fuchs, Jonas Kuhn, Nicole Bobrowski, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 295–307,Short summary
We present first measurements of volcanic SO2 emissions with a novel imaging technique for atmospheric trace gases in the UV and visible spectral range. Periodic spectral Fabry–Pérot interferometer transmission features are matched to differential absorption cross sections of the investigated trace gas, yielding high selectivity and sensitivity. The technique can be extended to measure many other trace gases with high spatio-temporal resolution.
Carly Staebell, Kang Sun, Jenna Samra, Jonathan Franklin, Christopher Chan Miller, Xiong Liu, Eamon Conway, Kelly Chance, Scott Milligan, and Steven Wofsy
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMT
Jia Su, M. Patrick McCormick, Matthew S. Johnson, John T. Sullivan, Michael J. Newchurch, Timothy A. Berkoff, Shi Kuang, and Guillaume P. Gronoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
A new technique using a three-wavelength Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique based on an Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO) laser is proposed to obtain more accurate measurements of NO2. The retrieval uncertainties of aerosol extinction using the three-wavelength DIAL technique are reduced to less than 2 % of using the two-wavelength DIAL technique. HU lidar NO2 profiles are compared with simulated data from WRF-Chem model and they agree well.
Bo Galle, Santiago Arellano, Nicole Bobrowski, Vladimir Conde, Tobias P. Fischer, Gustav Gerdes, Alexandra Gutmann, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ima Itikarai, Tomas Krejci, Emma J. Liu, Kila Mulina, Scott Nowicki, Tom Richardson, Julian Rüdiger, Kieran Wood, and Jiazhi Xu
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Measurements of volcanic gases is important for geophysical research, risk assessment and environmental impact studies. Some gases, like SO2 and BrO, may be studied from ground at a safe distance using remote sensing techniques. Many other gases require in-situ access to the gas plume. Here a drone may be an attractive alternative. This paper describes a drone specially adapted for volcanic gas studies, and demonstrate its use in a field campaign at Manam volcano in Papua New Guinea.
Thomas Trickl, Helmuth Giehl, Frank Neidl, Matthias Perfahl, and Hannes Vogelmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6357–6390,Short summary
Lidar sounding of ozone and other atmospheric constituents has proved to be an invaluable tool for atmospheric studies. The ozone lidar systems developed at Garmisch-Partenkirchen have reached an accuracy level almost matching that of in situ sensors. Since the late 1990s numerous important scientific discoveries have been made, such as the first observation of intercontinental transport of ozone and the very high occurrence of intrusions of stratospheric air into the troposphere.
John Robinson, Dan Smale, David Pollard, and Hisako Shiona
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5855–5871,Short summary
Solar trackers are used by spectrometers to measure atmospheric trace gas concentrations using direct-sun spectroscopy. The ideal tracker should be sufficiently accurate, highly reliable, and with a longevity that exceeds the lifetime of the spectrometer which it serves. It should also be affordable, easy to use, and not too complex should maintenance be required. We present a design that fulfils these requirements using some simple innovations.
Luis Millán, Richard Roy, and Matthew Lebsock
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5193–5205,Short summary
This paper describes the feasibility of using a differential absorption radar technique for the remote sensing of total column water vapor from a spaceborne platform.
Marek Šmíd, Geiland Porrovecchio, Jiří Tesař, Tim Burnitt, Luca Egli, Julian Grőbner, Petr Linduška, and Martin Staněk
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMT
Mahesh Kumar Sha, Martine De Mazière, Justus Notholt, Thomas Blumenstock, Huilin Chen, Angelika Dehn, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Pauli Heikkinen, Christian Hermans, Alex Hoffmann, Marko Huebner, Nicholas Jones, Rigel Kivi, Bavo Langerock, Christof Petri, Francis Scolas, Qiansi Tu, and Damien Weidmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4791–4839,Short summary
We present the results of the 2017 FRM4GHG campaign at the Sodankylä TCCON site aimed at characterising the assessment of several low-cost portable instruments for precise solar absorption measurements of column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2, CH4, and CO. The test instruments provided stable and precise measurements of these gases with quantified small biases. This qualifies the instruments to complement TCCON and expand the global coverage of ground-based measurements of these gases.
Zoë Y. W. Davis and Robert McLaren
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3993–4008,Short summary
MAX-DOAS is a technique that can be used to measure pollutant concentrations and vertical profiles in the atmosphere via remote sensing of sky-scattered light with a telescope. Measuring SO2 is particularly challenging because of low light intensities in regions where SO2 absorbs solar radiation. Here, we performed experiments that document inaccuracies in these measurements as a function of spectral
fitting windows. We provide recommendations for measuring SO2 with greater accuracy.
Benoît Tournadre, Pascale Chelin, Mokhtar Ray, Juan Cuesta, Rebecca D. Kutzner, Xavier Landsheere, Audrey Fortems-Cheiney, Jean-Marie Flaud, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Johannes Orphal, Camille Viatte, and Claude Camy-Peyret
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3923–3937,Short summary
We present some results about ammonia pollution because NH3, mainly emitted by agricultural activities, is a precursor of fine particles. This study is based on the first multiyear time series (2009–2017) of atmospheric NH3 ground-based measurements over the Paris megacity. This pollutant varies seasonally by 2 orders of magnitude, especially in spring. We highlight that this kind of instrument could be easily installed and is very useful for analyzing NH3 in other megacities or source regions.
Antje Ludewig, Quintus Kleipool, Rolf Bartstra, Robin Landzaat, Jonatan Leloux, Erwin Loots, Peter Meijering, Emiel van der Plas, Nico Rozemeijer, Frank Vonk, and Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3561–3580,Short summary
After the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite launch on 13 October 2017, its single payload, the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), was tested and calibrated extensively. Changes due to ageing of the instrument and new insights have led to updates to the L1b processor and its calibration key data, leading to improvements of the data quality. Regularly scheduled calibration measurements are used in the nominal operations phase (since 30 April 2018) to correct instrument degradation.
Jean-Loup Bertaux, Alain Hauchecorne, Franck Lefèvre, François-Marie Bréon, Laurent Blanot, Denis Jouglet, Pierre Lafrique, and Pavel Akaev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3329–3374,Short summary
Monitoring of greenhouse gases from space is usually done by measuring the quantity of CO2 and O2 in the atmosphere from their spectral absorption imprinted on the solar spectrum backscattered upwards. We show that the use of the near-infrared band of O2 at 1.27 µm, instead of the O2 band at 0.76 nm used up to now, may be more appropriate to better account for aerosols, in spite of a known airglow emission from ozone. The climate space mission MicroCarb (launched in 2021) includes this new band.
Johan Strandgren, David Krutz, Jonas Wilzewski, Carsten Paproth, Ilse Sebastian, Kevin R. Gurney, Jianming Liang, Anke Roiger, and André Butz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2887–2904,Short summary
This paper presents the concept of a spaceborne imaging spectrometer targeting the routine monitoring of CO2 emissions from localized point sources down to an emission strength of about 1 Mt CO2 yr-1. Using high-resolution CO2 emission and albedo data, it is shown that CO2 plumes from point sources with an emission strength down to the order of 0.3 Mt CO2 yr-1 can be resolved in an urban environment (when limited by instrument noise only), hence leaving significant margin for additional errors.
Sebastian Donner, Jonas Kuhn, Michel Van Roozendael, Alkiviadis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Tim Bösch, Kristof Bognar, Ilya Bruchkouski, Ka Lok Chan, Steffen Dörner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Udo Frieß, François Hendrick, Christian Hermans, Junli Jin, Ang Li, Jianzhong Ma, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Andreas Richter, Stefan F. Schreier, André Seyler, Kimberly Strong, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Yang Wang, Pinhua Xie, Jin Xu, Xiaoyi Zhao, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 685–712,Short summary
The calibration of the elevation angles of MAX-DOAS instruments is important for the correct interpretation of such MAX-DOAS measurements. We present and evaluate different methods for the elevation calibration of MAX-DOAS instruments which were applied during the CINDI-2 field campaign.
Jonas Simon Wilzewski, Anke Roiger, Johan Strandgren, Jochen Landgraf, Dietrich G. Feist, Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Isamu Morino, Hirofumi Ohyama, Yao Té, Rigel Kivi, Thorsten Warneke, Justus Notholt, Manvendra Dubey, Ralf Sussmann, Markus Rettinger, Frank Hase, Kei Shiomi, and André Butz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 731–745,Short summary
Through spectral degradation of GOSAT measurements in the 1.6 and 2.0 μm spectral bands, we mimic a single-band, passive satellite sensor for monitoring of CO2 emissions at fine spatial scales. We compare retrievals of XCO2 from these bands to TCCON and native GOSAT retrievals. At spectral resolutions near 1.3 nm, XCO2 retrievals from both bands show promising performance, but the 2.0 μm band is favorable due to better noise performance and the potential to retrieve some aerosol information.
Samuel Quesada-Ruiz, Jean-Luc Attié, William A. Lahoz, Rachid Abida, Philippe Ricaud, Laaziz El Amraoui, Régina Zbinden, Andrea Piacentini, Mathieu Joly, Henk Eskes, Arjo Segers, Lyana Curier, Johan de Haan, Jukka Kujanpää, Albert Christiaan Plechelmus Oude Nijhuis, Johanna Tamminen, Renske Timmermans, and Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 131–152,
Wenyu Wang, Zhenzhan Wang, and Yongqiang Duan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 13–38,Short summary
THz Atmospheric Limb Sounder (TALIS) is a microwave limb sounder designed to measure the temperature and chemical species. The instrument will make an important contribution to monitoring the chemistry of the middle atmosphere. This paper describes the performance of this instrument. We use the radiative transfer model to evaluate its performance. As a result, the retrieval precision is quite acceptable.
Tim A. van Kempen, Richard M. van Hees, Paul J. J. Tol, Ilse Aben, and Ruud W. M. Hoogeveen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6827–6844,Short summary
This paper presents the TROPOMI-SWIR performance and health after a year of full operations. Using the on-going monitoring program, TROPOMI-SWIR is shown to be in excellent health and is performing as well as, if not better than, expected. With the exception of a tiny loss of detector pixels (less than 0.05 % over a full year), no components appear to be degrading. We show that TROPOMI-SWIR is expected to keep on providing excellent data for the full S5-P lifetime.
Ulrich Platt and Jonas Kuhn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6259–6272,Short summary
Measurements of atmospheric trace gases by absorption spectroscopy are frequently supported by recording the amount of trace gas in absorption cells. These are typically small glass (or quartz) cylinders containing the gas to be studied. Here we show in the example of NO2-absorption cells that the effective amount of gas seen by the instrument can deviate greatly from expected values (by orders of magnitude in severe cases). Some suggestions for improving the situation are discussed.
Enno Peters, Mareike Ostendorf, Tim Bösch, André Seyler, Anja Schönhardt, Stefan F. Schreier, Jeroen Sebastiaan Henzing, Folkard Wittrock, Andreas Richter, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4171–4190,Short summary
A novel imaging-DOAS instrument (IMPACT) is presented for measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the atmosphere. The instrument combines full-azimuthal pointing (360°) with a large vertical coverage (40°). Complete panoramic scans and vertical NO2 profiles around the measurement site are acquired at a temporal resolution of 15 min. In addition, information about the aerosol phase function is retrieved from O4 slant columns along multiple almucantar scans measured simultaneously by IMPACT.
Jan-Marcus Nasse, Philipp G. Eger, Denis Pöhler, Stefan Schmitt, Udo Frieß, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4149–4169,Short summary
We present several changes to the setup of long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) instruments, including the application of a laser-driven light source, a modified coupling of the measurement signal between components, improved stray-light suppression, and better signal homogenization measures. These changes reduce detection limits of typical trace-gas species by a factor of 3–4 compared to previous setups and enable automated long-term observations in Antarctica.
Niall J. Ryan, Mathias Palm, Christoph G. Hoffmann, Jens Goliasch, and Justus Notholt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4077–4089,Short summary
We present a new ground-based instrument (CORAM) that measures atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations within approximately 47–87 km in altitude with a 1 h time resolution. The measurements are made at Ny-Ålesund (79° N), Svalbard, and add much-needed coverage to the high Arctic. The first measured CO profiles from winter 2017/2018 are compared to co-located measurements from the Aura MLS satellite instrument and show agreement on daily and monthly timescales.
Jeffrey Nivitanont, Sean M. R. Crowell, and Berrien Moore III
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3317–3334,Short summary
A scanning strategy is proposed for the upcoming GeoCarb instrument that minimizes predicted retrieval errors of CO2 by optimizing signal-to-noise ratio with respect to air mass factor and solar zenith angle. The strategy is generated using a modified greedy algorithm that optimizes over these stationary processes while also considering operational constraints. This method increases the number of soundings with predicted CO2 retrieval error less than 2 ppm by 18–41 %.
Annmarie Eldering, Thomas E. Taylor, Christopher W. O'Dell, and Ryan Pavlick
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2341–2370,Short summary
NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-3 (OCO-3) is scheduled for a 2019 launch to the International Space Station (ISS). It is expected to continue the record of column carbon dioxide (XCO2) and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) measurements from space used to study and constrain the Earth's carbon cycle. This work highlights the measurement objectives and uses simulated data to show that the expected instrument performance is on par with that of OCO-2.
Yueting Zhou, Jianxin Liu, Songjie Guo, Gang Zhao, Weiguang Ma, Zhensong Cao, Lei Dong, Lei Zhang, Wangbao Yin, Yongqian Wu, Lianxuan Xiao, Ove Axner, and Suotang Jia
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1807–1814,Short summary
A relative weak transition of target gas is often selected to ensure a large optical depth in atmospheric lidar. Meanwhile, the laser frequency should be stabilized to the line center for valid detection. Sub-Doppler spectroscopy is the most suitable reference to obtain a high-quality frequency stabilization. In this paper, a novel universal sD NICE-OHMS instrumentation based on a f-SSM is reported, which has a potential application in the atmospheric lidar for different types of lasers.
Matthias Frey, Mahesh K. Sha, Frank Hase, Matthäus Kiel, Thomas Blumenstock, Roland Harig, Gregor Surawicz, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Kei Shiomi, Jonathan E. Franklin, Hartmut Bösch, Jia Chen, Michel Grutter, Hirofumi Ohyama, Youwen Sun, André Butz, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Dragos Ene, Debra Wunch, Zhensong Cao, Omaira Garcia, Michel Ramonet, Felix Vogel, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1513–1530,Short summary
In a 3.5-year long study, the long-term performance of a mobile EM27/SUN spectrometer, used for greenhouse gas observations, is checked with respect to a co-located reference spectrometer. We find that the EM27/SUN is stable on timescales of several years, qualifying it for permanent carbon cycle studies. The performance of an ensemble of 30 EM27/SUN spectrometers was also tested in the framework of the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON) and found to be very uniform.
Jonas Kuhn, Ulrich Platt, Nicole Bobrowski, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 735–747,Short summary
We study a novel remote-sensing technique for atmospheric trace gases absorbing in the UV and visible spectral range. Using Fabry–Perot interferometers with a spectral transmission matched to the trace gas's spectral absorption allows for imaging trace gases with high sensitivity and selectivity. The thereby achieved high spatio-temporal resolution enables the study of small-scale and dynamic processes in the atmosphere. We present sample calculations and a proof-of-concept study.
Fernando Chouza, Thierry Leblanc, Mark Brewer, and Patrick Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 569–583,
Jeffery Langille, Daniel Letros, Adam Bourassa, Brian Solheim, Doug Degenstein, Fabien Dupont, Daniel Zawada, and Nick D. Lloyd
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 431–455,Short summary
The SHOW instrument is a prototype satellite concept that is being developed through collaboration between the University of Saskatchewan, the Canadian Space Agency, and ABB Inc. to provide high vertical resolution (< 200 m) measurements of UTLS water vapour with < 1 ppm accuracy. This paper presents suborbital measurements obtained during a demonstration flight aboard NASA's ER-2 aircraft. These measurements are validated through a comparison with coincident radiosonde measurements.
Betsy M. Farris, Guillaume P. Gronoff, William Carrion, Travis Knepp, Margaret Pippin, and Timothy A. Berkoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 363–370,Short summary
During the 2017 Ozone Water Land Environmental Transition Study (OWLETS), the Langley mobile ozone lidar system utilized a new small diameter receiver to improve the retrieval of near-surface signals from 0.1 to 1 km in altitude. This allowed for improved near-surface ozone concentration measurements, those most important to human health, while also measuring profiles up to stratospheric altitudes. OWLETS provided multiple instrument comparisons for validation of the system improvement.
Igor Veselovskii, Philippe Goloub, Qiaoyun Hu, Thierry Podvin, David N. Whiteman, Mikhael Korenskiy, and Eduardo Landulfo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 119–128,Short summary
Methane is currently the second most important greenhouse gas of anthropogenic origin (after carbon dioxide) and its concentration can be increased inside the boundary layer. So, the development of instruments for vertical profiling of the methane mixing ratio is an important task. We present the results of methane profiling in the lower troposphere using LILAS Raman lidar from the Lille University observatory platform (France).
Kevin B. Strawbridge, Michael S. Travis, Bernard J. Firanski, Jeffrey R. Brook, Ralf Staebler, and Thierry Leblanc
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6735–6759,Short summary
Environment and Climate Change Canada has recently developed a fully autonomous, mobile lidar system to simultaneously measure the vertical profile of tropospheric ozone, aerosol and water vapor from near the ground to altitudes reaching 10–15 km. These atmospheric constituents play an important role in climate, air quality, and human and ecosystem health. Using an autonomous multi-lidar approach provides a continuous dataset rich in information for atmospheric process studies.
Quintus Kleipool, Antje Ludewig, Ljubiša Babić, Rolf Bartstra, Remco Braak, Werner Dierssen, Pieter-Jan Dewitte, Pepijn Kenter, Robin Landzaat, Jonatan Leloux, Erwin Loots, Peter Meijering, Emiel van der Plas, Nico Rozemeijer, Dinand Schepers, Daniel Schiavini, Joost Smeets, Giuseppe Vacanti, Frank Vonk, and Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6439–6479,Short summary
This paper reports on the pre-launch calibration of the TROPOMI instrument on board ESA's Sentinel 5P satellite. This calibration is needed to convert the raw instrument digital data to physical quantities like Earth radiance and Sun irradiance. From these quantities atmospheric properties can be derived. The paper shows that the chosen approach to calibration and analysis was successful and that the achieved accuracy makes high-quality observations of the Earth's atmosphere feasible.
Anne Kleinert, Manfred Birk, Gaétan Perron, and Georg Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5657–5672,Short summary
We present the error budget for the calibrated and geolocated spectra of the MIPAS limb sounder which flew on the ENVISAT satellite from 2002 to 2012. The impact of the different error sources on the spectra is characterized in terms of spectral, vertical, and temporal correlation. The radiometric error is in the order of 1 to 2.4 %, the spectral accuracy is better than 0.3 ppm, and the line of sight accuracy at the tangent point is around 400 m. All errors are well within the requirements.
Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Sander Slijkhuis, Bernd Aberle, Diego Loyola, and Angelika Dehn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5237–5259,Short summary
We present a detailed analysis of the long-term performance of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on-board ERS-2, which provided measurements of atmospheric constituents for the 16-year period from 1995 to 2011. By means of various in-flight calibration parameters, we monitor the behavior and stability during the entire mission. Furthermore, we introduce the new homogenized level 1 product generated using the recently developed GOME Data Processor Version 5.1.
Neil Humpage, Hartmut Boesch, Paul I. Palmer, Andy Vick, Phil Parr-Burman, Martyn Wells, David Pearson, Jonathan Strachan, and Naidu Bezawada
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5199–5222,Short summary
We present an overview of the GreenHouse gas Observations of the Stratosphere and Troposphere (GHOST) instrument, a novel shortwave infrared grating spectrometer designed for remote sensing of total column greenhouse gas concentrations from an aircraft. Using laboratory measurements we show that the GHOST design is able to achieve its science objectives. We conclude by describing GHOST's maiden flights on board the NASA Global Hawk UAV during CAST/ATTREX and show some of the initial results.
Richard M. van Hees, Paul J. J. Tol, Sidney Cadot, Matthijs Krijger, Stefan T. Persijn, Tim A. van Kempen, Ralph Snel, Ilse Aben, and Ruud W. M. Hoogeveen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3917–3933,
Anne Kleinert, Isabell Krisch, Jörn Ungermann, Albert Adibekyan, Berndt Gutschwager, and Christian Monte
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3871–3882,Short summary
This study investigates the required accuracy of radiometric calibration sources for remote sensing instruments to properly resolve decadal trends of climate relevant trace species like ozone, water vapor and temperature. The required temperature knowledge of the calibration source is in the order of 100 mK. This is demonstrated by a Monte Carlo simulation. The results are confirmed using real measurements acquired by the GLORIA instrument.
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