Articles | Volume 9, issue 9
28 Sep 2016
Research article | 28 Sep 2016
Evaluation of column-averaged methane in models and TCCON with a focus on the stratosphere
Andreas Ostler et al.
A. Ostler, R. Sussmann, P. K. Patra, P. O. Wennberg, N. M. Deutscher, D. W. T. Griffith, T. Blumenstock, F. Hase, R. Kivi, T. Warneke, Z. Wang, M. De Mazière, J. Robinson, and H. Ohyama
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
We find that stratospheric model-transport errors are common for chemical transport models that are used for inverse estimates of CH4 emissions. These model-transport errors cause latitudinal as well as seasonal biases in simulated stratospheric and, hence, column-averaged CH4 mixing ratios (XCH4). Such a model bias corresponds to an overestimation of arctic and mid-latitude CH4 emissions if inversion studies do not apply an ad hoc bias correction before inverting fluxes from XCH4 observations.
A. Ostler, R. Sussmann, M. Rettinger, N. M. Deutscher, S. Dohe, F. Hase, N. Jones, M. Palm, and B.-M. Sinnhuber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4081–4101,Short summary
Ground-based FTIR soundings of column-average methane from NDACC and TCCON can be combined without the need to apply an overall calibration factor. NDACC and TCCON measurements complement one another and provide valuable information for satellite validation, evaluation of chemical-transport models, and source-sink inversions. The impact of dynamical variability on NDACC and TCCON retrievals of column-average methane is reflected in different smoothing effects.
S. Kox, L. Bugliaro, and A. Ostler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3233–3246,
Ali Jalali, Kaley A. Walker, Kimberly Strong, Rebecca R. Buchholz, Merritt N. Deeter, Debra Wunch, Sébastien Roche, Tyler Wizenberg, Erik Lutsch, Erin McGee, Helen M. Worden, Pierre F. Fogal, and James R. Drummond
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
This study validates MOPITT version 8 carbon monoxide measurements over the Canadian High Arctic for the period 2006 to 2019. The MOPITT products from different detector pixels and channels are compared with ground-based measurements from the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in Eureka, Nunavut, Canada. These results show good consistency between the satellite and ground-based measurements and provide guidance on the usage of these MOPITT data at high latitudes.
Srijana Lama, Sander Houweling, K. Folkert Boersma, Ilse Aben, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, and Maarten C. Krol
Hydroxyl radical (OH) is the important chemical species that determines the life time of some greenhouse gases and trace gases. OH plays vital role in the air pollution chemistry. OH has short lifetime and extremely difficult to measure directly. OH concentrations derived from the chemistry transport model (CTM) has uncertainties >50 %. Therefore in this study, OH is derived indirectly using satellite date in urban plume.
Nora Mettig, Mark Weber, Alexei Rozanov, John P. Burrows, Pepijn Veefkind, Anne M. Thompson, Ryan M. Stauffer, Thierry Leblanc, Gerard Ancellet, Michael J. Newchurch, Shi Kuang, Rigel Kivi, Matthew B. Tully, Roeland Van Malderen, Ankie Piters, Bogumil Kois, René Stübi, and Pavla Skrivankova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2955–2978,Short summary
Vertical ozone profiles from combined spectral measurements in the UV and IR spectral ranges were retrieved by using data from TROPOMI/S5P and CrIS/Suomi-NPP. The vertical resolution and accuracy of the ozone profiles are improved by combining both wavelength ranges compared to retrievals limited to UV or IR spectral data only. The advancement of our TOPAS algorithm for combined measurements is required because in the UV-only retrieval the vertical resolution in the troposphere is very limited.
Beatriz Herrera, Alejandro Bezanilla, Thomas Blumenstock, Enrico Dammers, Frank Hase, Lieven Clarisse, Adolfo Magaldi, Claudia Rivera, Wolfgang Stremme, Kimberly Strong, Camille Viatte, Martin Van Damme, and Michel Grutter
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This work investigates atmospheric ammonia (NH3), a key trace gas with consequences for the environment and human health, in Mexico City. The results from the ground-based and satellite instruments show the variability and spatial distribution of NH3 over this region. NH3 in Mexico City has been increasing for the past ten years and most of its sources are urban. This work contributes to a better understanding of NH3 sources and variability in urban and remote areas.
Andreas Luther, Julian Kostinek, Ralph Kleinschek, Sara Defratyka, Mila Stanisavljević, Andreas Forstmaier, Alexandru Dandocsi, Leon Scheidweiler, Darko Dubravica, Norman Wildmann, Frank Hase, Matthias M. Frey, Jia Chen, Florian Dietrich, Jarosław Nȩcki, Justyna Swolkień, Christoph Knote, Sanam N. Vardag, Anke Roiger, and André Butz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5859–5876,Short summary
Coal mining is an extensive source of anthropogenic methane emissions. In order to reduce and mitigate methane emissions, it is important to know how much and where the methane is emitted. We estimated coal mining methane emissions in Poland based on atmospheric methane measurements and particle dispersion modeling. In general, our emission estimates suggest higher emissions than expected by previous annual emission reports.
Cynthia H. Whaley, Rashed Mahmood, Knut von Salzen, Barbara Winter, Sabine Eckhardt, Stephen Arnold, Stephen Beagley, Silvia Becagli, Rong-You Chien, Jesper Christensen, Sujay Manish Damani, Xinyi Dong, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Gregory Faluvegi, Mark Flanner, Joshua S. Fu, Michael Gauss, Fabio Giardi, Wanmin Gong, Jens Liengaard Hjorth, Lin Huang, Ulas Im, Yugo Kanaya, Srinath Krishnan, Zbigniew Klimont, Thomas Kühn, Joakim Langner, Kathy S. Law, Louis Marelle, Andreas Massling, Dirk Olivié, Tatsuo Onishi, Naga Oshima, Yiran Peng, David A. Plummer, Olga Popovicheva, Luca Pozzoli, Jean-Christophe Raut, Maria Sand, Laura N. Saunders, Julia Schmale, Sangeeta Sharma, Ragnhild Bieltvedt Skeie, Henrik Skov, Fumikazu Taketani, Manu A. Thomas, Rita Traversi, Kostas Tsigaridis, Svetlana Tsyro, Steven Turnock, Vito Vitale, Kaley A. Walker, Minqi Wang, Duncan Watson-Parris, and Tahya Weiss-Gibbons
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5775–5828,Short summary
Air pollutants, like ozone and soot, play a role in both global warming and air quality. Atmospheric models are often used to provide information to policy makers about current and future conditions under different emissions scenarios. In order to have confidence in those simulations, in this study we compare simulated air pollution from 18 state-of-the-art atmospheric models to measured air pollution in order to assess how well the models perform.
Omaira Elena García, Esther Sanromá, Matthias Schneider, Frank Hase, Sergio Fabián León-Luis, Thomas Blumenstock, Eliezer Sepúlveda, Alberto Redondas, Virgilio Carreño, Carlos Torres, and Natalia Prats
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2557–2577,Short summary
Accurate observations of atmospheric ozone (O3) are essential to monitor in detail its key role in atmospheric chemistry. In this context, this paper has assessed the effect of using different retrieval strategies on the quality of O3 products from ground-based NDACC FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometry, with the aim of providing an improved O3 retrieval that could be applied at any NDACC FTIR station.
Carlos Alberti, Frank Hase, Matthias Frey, Darko Dubravica, Thomas Blumenstock, Angelika Dehn, Paolo Castracane, Gregor Surawicz, Roland Harig, Bianca C. Baier, Caroline Bès, Jianrong Bi, Hartmut Boesch, André Butz, Zhaonan Cai, Jia Chen, Sean M. Crowell, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dragos Ene, Jonathan E. Franklin, Omaira García, David Griffith, Bruno Grouiez, Michel Grutter, Abdelhamid Hamdouni, Sander Houweling, Neil Humpage, Nicole Jacobs, Sujong Jeong, Lilian Joly, Nicholas B. Jones, Denis Jouglet, Rigel Kivi, Ralph Kleinschek, Morgan Lopez, Diogo J. Medeiros, Isamu Morino, Nasrin Mostafavipak, Astrid Müller, Hirofumi Ohyama, Paul I. Palmer, Mahesh Pathakoti, David F. Pollard, Uwe Raffalski, Michel Ramonet, Robbie Ramsay, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, William Simpson, Wolfgang Stremme, Youwen Sun, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Yao Té, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Voltaire A. Velazco, Felix Vogel, Masataka Watanabe, Chong Wei, Debra Wunch, Marcia Yamasoe, Lu Zhang, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2433–2463,Short summary
Space-borne greenhouse gas missions require ground-based validation networks capable of providing fiducial reference measurements. Here, considerable refinements of the calibration procedures for the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON) are presented. Laboratory and solar side-by-side procedures for the characterization of the spectrometers have been refined and extended. Revised calibration factors for XCO2, XCO and XCH4 are provided, incorporating 47 new spectrometers.
Edward Malina, Ben Veihelmann, Matthias Buschmann, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, and Isamu Morino
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2377–2406,Short summary
Methane retrievals from remote sensing instruments are fundamentally based on spectroscopic parameters, which indicate spectral-line positions, and their characteristics. These parameters are stored in several databases that vary in their make-up. Here we assess how concentrations of methane isotopologues measured from the same Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) instruments vary across a range of spectral windows using different spectroscopic databases and comment on the implications.
Yunsong Liu, Jean-Daniel Paris, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Panayiota Antoniou, Christos Constantinides, Maximilien Desservettaz, Christos Keleshis, Olivier Laurent, Andreas Leonidou, Carole Philippon, Panagiotis Vouterakos, Pierre-Yves Quéhé, Philippe Bousquet, and Jean Sciare
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
This manuscript details laboratory-based and field developments of a cost-effective and compacted UAV-CO2 sensor system to address the challenge of measuring CO2 with sufficient precision and acquisition frequency. We assess its performance extensively through laboratory and field tests and provide a case study in the urban area (Nicosia, Cyprus). We therefore expect that this portable system will be widely used for measuring CO2 emission and distribution in natural/urban environments.
Andreas Schneider, Tobias Borsdorff, Joost aan de Brugh, Alba Lorente, Franziska Aemisegger, David Noone, Dean Henze, Rigel Kivi, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2251–2275,Short summary
This paper presents an extended H₂O/HDO total column dataset from short-wave infrared measurements by TROPOMI including cloudy and clear-sky scenes. Coverage is tremendously increased compared to previous TROPOMI HDO datasets. The new dataset is validated against recent ground-based FTIR measurements from TCCON and against aircraft measurements over the ocean. The use of the new dataset is demonstrated with a case study of a cold air outbreak in January 2020.
Carlos Alberti, Qiansi Tu, Frank Hase, Maria V. Makarova, Konstantin Gribanov, Stefani C. Foka, Vyacheslav Zakharov, Thomas Blumenstock, Michael Buchwitz, Christopher Diekmann, Benjamin Ertl, Matthias M. Frey, Hamud Kh. Imhasin, Dmitry V. Ionov, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Sergey I. Osipov, Maximilian Reuter, Matthias Schneider, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2199–2229,Short summary
Satellite and ground-based observations at high latitudes are much sparser than at low or mid latitudes, which makes direct coincident comparisons between remote-sensing observations more difficult. Therefore, a method of scaling continuous CAMS model data to the ground-based observations is developed and used for creating virtual COCCON observations. These adjusted CAMS data are then used for satellite inter-comparison, showing good agreement in both Peterhof and Yekaterinburg cities.
Zhu Deng, Philippe Ciais, Zitely A. Tzompa-Sosa, Marielle Saunois, Chunjing Qiu, Chang Tan, Taochun Sun, Piyu Ke, Yanan Cui, Katsumasa Tanaka, Xin Lin, Rona L. Thompson, Hanqin Tian, Yuanzhi Yao, Yuanyuan Huang, Ronny Lauerwald, Atul K. Jain, Xiaoming Xu, Ana Bastos, Stephen Sitch, Paul I. Palmer, Thomas Lauvaux, Alexandre d'Aspremont, Clément Giron, Antoine Benoit, Benjamin Poulter, Jinfeng Chang, Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Steven J. Davis, Zhu Liu, Giacomo Grassi, Clément Albergel, Francesco N. Tubiello, Lucia Perugini, Wouter Peters, and Frédéric Chevallier
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1639–1675,Short summary
In support of the global stocktake of the Paris Agreement on climate change, we proposed a method for reconciling the results of global atmospheric inversions with data from UNFCCC national greenhouse gas inventories (NGHGIs). Here, based on a new global harmonized database that we compiled from the UNFCCC NGHGIs and a comprehensive framework presented in this study to process the results of inversions, we compared their results of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O).
Omaira Elena García, Esther Sanromá, Frank Hase, Matthias Schneider, Sergio Fabián León-Luis, Thomas Blumenstock, Eliezer Sepúlveda, Carlos Torres, Natalia Prats, Alberto Redondas, and Virgilio Carreño
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Retrieving high-precision concentrations of atmospheric trace gases from FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectrometry requires a precise knowledge of the instrumental performance. In this context, this paper examines the impact on the ozone (O3) retrievals of several approaches used to characterise the Instrumental Line Shape (ILS) function of ground-based FTIR spectrometers within NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change).
Stefan Noël, Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Jakob Borchardt, Michael Hilker, Oliver Schneising, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Antonio Di Noia, Robert J. Parker, Hiroshi Suto, Yukio Yoshida, Matthias Buschmann, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Cheng Liu, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, Coleen M. Roehl, Constantina Rousogenous, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
We present a new version (v3) of the GOSAT and GOSAT-2 FOCAL products. In addition to an increased number of XCO2 data, v3 also includes products for XCH4 (full physics and proxy), XH2O, and the relative ratio of HDO to H2O (δD). For GOSAT-2, we also present first XCO and XN2O results. All FOCAL data products show reasonable spatial distribution and temporal variations and agree well with TCCON. Global XN2O maps show a gradient from the tropics to higher latitudes in the order of 15 ppb.
Claudia Mignani, Lukas Zimmermann, Rigel Kivi, Alexis Berne, and Franz Conen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
In the Arctic clouds play a critical role in surface warming, depending on their phase. We determined over the course of eight winter months the phase of clouds in Northern Finland using radiosondes and observations of snow particle habits at ground level. We found that precipitating clouds were extending from near ground to at least 2.7 km altitude and approximately three quarters of them were ice-phase. Likely moisture sources and possible ice formation processes are discussed.
Patrick E. Sheese, Kaley A. Walker, Chris D. Boone, Adam E. Bourassa, Doug A. Degenstein, Lucien Froidevaux, C. Thomas McElroy, Donal Murtagh, James M. Russell III, and Jiansheng Zou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1233–1249,Short summary
This study analyzes the quality of two versions (v3.6 and v4.1) of ozone concentration measurements from the ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer), by comparing with data from five satellite instruments between 2004 and 2020. It was found that although the v3.6 data exhibit a better agreement than v4.1 with respect to the other instruments, v4.1 exhibits much better stability over time than v3.6. The stability of v4.1 makes it suitable for ozone trend studies.
Thomas von Clarmann, Steven Compernolle, and Frank Hase
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1145–1157,Short summary
Contrary to the claims put forward in
Evaluation of measurement data – Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurementissued by the JCGM, the error concept and the uncertainty concept are the same. Arguments in favor of the contrary were found not to be compelling. Neither was any evidence presented that
uncertaintiesdefine a different relation between the measured and true values, nor is a Bayesian concept beyond the mere subjective probability referred to.
Florian Haenel, Wolfgang Woiwode, Jennifer Buchmüller, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Michael Höpfner, Sören Johansson, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Anne Kleinert, Hermann Oelhaf, Johannes Orphal, Roland Ruhnke, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Jörn Ungermann, Michael Weimer, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2843–2870,Short summary
We compare remote sensing observations of H2O, O3, HNO3 and clouds in the upper troposphere–lowermost stratosphere during an Arctic winter long-range research flight with simulations by two different state-of-the-art model systems. We find good agreement for dynamical structures, trace gas distributions and clouds. We investigate model biases and sensitivities, with the goal of aiding model development and improving our understanding of processes in the upper troposphere–lowermost stratosphere.
Yousef Albuhaisi, Ype van der Velde, and Sander Houweling
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
An important uncertainty in the modelling of methane emissions from natural wetlands is the wetland area. It is important to get the spatiotemporal covariance between the variables that drive methane emissions right for accurate quantification. Using high-resolution wetland and soil carbon maps, in combination with a simplified methane emission model that is coarsened in six steps from 0.005° to 1°, we find a strong relation between wetland emissions and the model resolution.
Matthias Schneider, Benjamin Ertl, Christopher J. Diekmann, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Andreas Weber, Frank Hase, Michael Höpfner, Omaira E. García, Eliezer Sepúlveda, and Douglas Kinnison
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 709–742,Short summary
We present atmospheric H2O, HDO / H2O ratio, N2O, CH4, and HNO3 data generated by the MUSICA IASI processor using thermal nadir spectra measured by the IASI satellite instrument. The data have global daily coverage and are available for the period between October 2014 and June 2021. Multiple possibilities of data reuse are offered by providing each individual data product together with information about retrieval settings and the products' uncertainty and vertical representativeness.
Philippe Ciais, Ana Bastos, Frédéric Chevallier, Ronny Lauerwald, Ben Poulter, Josep G. Canadell, Gustaf Hugelius, Robert B. Jackson, Atul Jain, Matthew Jones, Masayuki Kondo, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Prabir K. Patra, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Shilong Piao, Chunjing Qiu, Celso Von Randow, Pierre Regnier, Marielle Saunois, Robert Scholes, Anatoly Shvidenko, Hanqin Tian, Hui Yang, Xuhui Wang, and Bo Zheng
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1289–1316,Short summary
The second phase of the Regional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) will provide updated quantification and process understanding of CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions and sinks for ten regions of the globe. In this paper, we give definitions, review different methods, and make recommendations for estimating different components of the total land–atmosphere carbon exchange for each region in a consistent and complete approach.
Qiansi Tu, Matthias Schneider, Frank Hase, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Benjamin Ertl, Jaroslaw Necki, Darko Dubravica, Christopher J. Diekmann, Thomas Blumenstock, and Dianjun Fang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Three-year satellite observations and high-resolution model forecast of XCH4 are used to derive CH4 emissions in the USCB region, Poland, a region of intensive coal mining activities. The wind-assigned anomalies for two opposite wind directions are calculate and the estimated emission rates are very close to the inventories and in reasonable agreement to the previous studies. Our method is quite robust and can be served as a simple method to estimate CH4 or CO2 emissions for other regions.
Yohanna Villalobos, Peter J. Rayner, Jeremy D. Silver, Steven Thomas, Vanessa Haverd, Jürgen Knauer, Zoë M. Loh, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, and David F. Pollard
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
We study the interannual variability of Australian carbon fluxes for 2015–2019 derived from OCO-2 satellite data. Our results suggest that Australia's semi-arid ecosystems are highly responsive to variations in climate drivers such as rainfall and temperature. We found that high rainfall and low temperatures recorded in 2016 led to an anomalous carbon sink over the savanna and sparsely vegetated regions, while unprecedented dry and hot weather in 2019 led to anomalous carbon release.
Thomas E. Taylor, Christopher W. O'Dell, David Crisp, Akhiko Kuze, Hannakaisa Lindqvist, Paul O. Wennberg, Abhishek Chatterjee, Michael Gunson, Annmarie Eldering, Brendan Fisher, Matthäus Kiel, Robert R. Nelson, Aronne Merrelli, Greg Osterman, Frédéric Chevallier, Paul I. Palmer, Liang Feng, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Manvendra K. Dubey, Dietrich G. Feist, Omaira E. García, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Cheng Liu, Martine De Mazière, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, Matthias Schneider, Coleen M. Roehl, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Thorsten Warneke, and Debra Wunch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 325–360,Short summary
We provide an analysis of an 11-year record of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations derived using an optimal estimation retrieval algorithm on measurements made by the GOSAT satellite. The new product (version 9) shows improvement over the previous version (v7.3) as evaluated against independent estimates of CO2 from ground-based sensors and atmospheric inversion systems. We also compare the new GOSAT CO2 values to collocated estimates from NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2.
Sheena Loeffel, Roland Eichinger, Hella Garny, Thomas Reddmann, Frauke Fritsch, Stefan Versick, Gabriele Stiller, and Florian Haenel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1175–1193,Short summary
SF6-derived trends of stratospheric AoA from observations and model simulations disagree in sign. SF6 experiences chemical degradation, which we explicitly integrate in a global climate model. In our simulations, the AoA trend changes sign when SF6 sinks are considered; thus, the process has the potential to reconcile simulated with observed AoA trends. We show that the positive AoA trend is due to the SF6 sinks themselves and provide a first approach for a correction to account for SF6 loss.
Qiansi Tu, Frank Hase, Matthias Schneider, Omaira García, Thomas Blumenstock, Tobias Borsdorff, Matthias Frey, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Alba Lorente, Carlos Alberti, Juan J. Bustos, André Butz, Virgilio Carreño, Emilio Cuevas, Roger Curcoll, Christopher J. Diekmann, Darko Dubravica, Benjamin Ertl, Carme Estruch, Sergio Fabián León-Luis, Carlos Marrero, Josep-Anton Morgui, Ramón Ramos, Christian Scharun, Carsten Schneider, Eliezer Sepúlveda, Carlos Toledano, and Carlos Torres
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 295–317,Short summary
We use different methane ground- and space-based remote sensing data sets for investigating the emission strength of three waste disposal sites close to Madrid. We present a method that uses wind-assigned anomalies for deriving emission strengths from satellite data and estimate their uncertainty to 9–14 %. The emission strengths estimated from the remote sensing data sets are significantly larger than the values published in the official register.
Mei Bai, Zoe Loh, David W. T. Griffith, Debra Turner, Richard Eckard, Robert Edis, Owen T. Denmead, Glenn W. Bryant, Clare Paton-Walsh, Matthew Tonini, Sean M. McGinn, and Deli Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The open-path laser (OPL) and OP-FTIR are currently used in agricultural research, but their contributing error to emissions research has not been the focus of these studies. We conducted gas release trials and compared the applicability and performance (accuracy and precision) for measuring gas mixing ratios. The OP-FTIR has better stability in stable conditions than OPL. The CH4 OPL accurately detected the low background level of CH4 but the NH3 OPL detected the background values > 10 ppbv.
Naveen Chandra, Prabir K. Patra, Yousuke Niwa, Akihiko Ito, Yosuke Iida, Daisuke Goto, Shinji Morimoto, Masayuki Kondo, Masayuki Takigawa, Tomohiro Hajima, and Michio Watanabe
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
This paper is intended to accomplish two goals: 1) quantify mean and uncertainty in non-fossil fuel CO2 fluxes estimated by the inverse modeling, and 2) provide in-depth analyses of regional CO2 fluxes in support of the emission mitigation policymaking. CO2 flux variability and trends are discussed concerning natural climate variability and human disturbances using multiple lines of evidence. Finally, some recommendations are given for inversion flux comparison from multiple transport models.
Michael Höpfner, Oliver Kirner, Gerald Wetzel, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Florian Haenel, Sören Johansson, Johannes Orphal, Roland Ruhnke, Gabriele Stiller, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18433–18464,Short summary
BrONO2 is an important reservoir gas for inorganic stratospheric bromine linked to the chemical cycles of stratospheric ozone depletion. Presently infrared limb sounding is the only way to measure BrONO2 in the atmosphere. We provide global distributions of BrONO2 derived from MIPAS observations 2002–2012. Comparisons with EMAC atmospheric modelling show an overall agreement and enable us to derive an independent estimate of stratospheric bromine of 21.2±1.4pptv based on the BrONO2 measurements.
Tyler Wizenberg, Kimberly Strong, Kaley Walker, Erik Lutsch, Tobias Borsdorff, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7707–7728,Short summary
CO is an important atmospheric gas that influences both air quality and the climate. Here, we compare CO measurements from TROPOMI with those from ACE-FTS and an Arctic ground-based FTS at Eureka, Nunavut, to further characterize the accuracy of TROPOMI measurements. CO columns from the instruments agree well but show larger differences at high latitudes. Despite this, the results fall within the TROPOMI accuracy target, indicating good data quality at high latitudes.
John Worden, Daniel Cusworth, Zhen Qu, Yi Yin, Yuzhong Zhang, A. Anthony Bloom, Shuang Ma, Brendan Byrne, Tia R. Scarpelli, Joannes Maasakkers, David Crisp, Riley Duren, and Daniel Jacob
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This paper is intended to accomplish two goals 1) describe a new algorithm by which remotely sensed measurements of methane or other tracers can be used to not just quantify methane fluxes but attribute these fluxes to specific sources and regions and characterize their uncertainties and 2) use this new algorithm to provide methane emissions by sector and country in support of the Global Stock Take.
Joseph Mendonca, Ray Nassar, Christopher W. O'Dell, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Kimberly Strong, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7511–7524,Short summary
Machine learning has become an important tool for pattern recognition in many applications. In this study, we used a neural network to improve the data quality of OCO-2 measurements made at northern high latitudes. The neural network was trained and used as a binary classifier to filter out bad OCO-2 measurements in order to increase the accuracy and precision of OCO-2 XCO2 measurements in the Boreal and Arctic regions.
Joël Thanwerdas, Marielle Saunois, Isabelle Pison, Didier Hauglustaine, Antoine Berchet, Bianca Baier, Colm Sweeney, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations have been rising since 2007, resulting from an imbalance between CH4 sources and sinks. The CH4 budget is generally estimated through top-down approaches using CH4 and δ13C(CH4) observations as constraints. The oxidation by chlorine (Cl) contributes little to the total oxidation of CH4 but strongly influences δ13C(CH4). Here, we compare multiple recent Cl fields and quantify the influence of Cl concentrations on CH4, δ13C(CH4) and CH4 budget estimates.
Yohanna Villalobos, Peter J. Rayner, Jeremy D. Silver, Steven Thomas, Vanessa Haverd, Jürgen Knauer, Zoë M. Loh, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, and David F. Pollard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17453–17494,Short summary
Semi-arid ecosystems such as those in Australia are evolving and might play an essential role in the future of climate change. We use carbon dioxide concentrations derived from the OCO-2 satellite instrument and a regional transport model to understand if Australia was a carbon sink or source of CO2 in 2015. Our research's main findings suggest that Australia acted as a carbon sink of about −0.41 ± 0.08 petagrams of carbon in 2015, driven primarily by savanna and sparsely vegetated ecosystems.
Nicole Jacobs, William R. Simpson, Kelly A. Graham, Christopher Holmes, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Qiansi Tu, Matthias Frey, Manvendra K. Dubey, Harrison A. Parker, Debra Wunch, Rigel Kivi, Pauli Heikkinen, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16661–16687,Short summary
Spatial patterns of carbon dioxide seasonal cycle amplitude and summer drawdown timing derived from the OCO-2 satellite over northern high latitudes agree well with corresponding estimates from two models. The Asian boreal forest is anomalous with the largest amplitude and earliest seasonal drawdown. Modeled land contact tracers suggest that accumulated CO2 exchanges during atmospheric transport play a major role in shaping carbon dioxide seasonality in northern high-latitude regions.
Vilma Kangasaho, Aki Tsuruta, Leif Backman, Pyry Mäkinen, Sander Houweling, Arjo Segers, Maarten Krol, Ed Dlugokencky, Sylvia Michel, James White, and Tuula Aalto
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Understanding the composition of carbon isotopes can help to better understand the changes in methane budgets. This study investigates how methane sources affect the seasonal cycle of the methane carbon-13 isotope during 2000–2012 using an atmospheric transport model. We found that emissions from both anthropogenic and natural sources contribute. The findings raise a need to revise the magnitudes, proportion, and seasonal cycles of anthropogenic sources and northern wetland emissions.
Christopher J. Diekmann, Matthias Schneider, Benjamin Ertl, Frank Hase, Omaira García, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Eliezer Sepúlveda, Peter Knippertz, and Peter Braesicke
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5273–5292,Short summary
The joint analysis of different stable water isotopes in water vapour is a powerful tool for investigating atmospheric moisture pathways. This paper presents a novel global and multi-annual dataset of H2O and HDO in mid-tropospheric water vapour by using data from the satellite sensor Metop/IASI. Due to its unique combination of coverage and resolution in space and time, this dataset is highly promising for studying the hydrological cycle and its representation in weather and climate models.
Shohei Nomura, Manish Naja, M. Kawser Ahmed, Hitoshi Mukai, Yukio Terao, Toshinobu Machida, Motoki Sasakawa, and Prabir K. Patra
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16427–16452,Short summary
Long-term measurements of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in India and Bangladesh unveiled specific characteristics in their variations in these regions. Plants including rice cultivated in winter and summer strongly affected seasonal variations and levels in CO2 and CH4. Long-term variability of GHGs showed quite different features in their growth rates from those in Mauna Loa. GHG trends in this region seemed to be hardly affected by El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO).
Jan C. Minx, William F. Lamb, Robbie M. Andrew, Josep G. Canadell, Monica Crippa, Niklas Döbbeling, Piers M. Forster, Diego Guizzardi, Jos Olivier, Glen P. Peters, Julia Pongratz, Andy Reisinger, Matthew Rigby, Marielle Saunois, Steven J. Smith, Efisio Solazzo, and Hanqin Tian
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5213–5252,Short summary
We provide a synthetic dataset on anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for 1970–2018 with a fast-track extension to 2019. We show that GHG emissions continued to rise across all gases and sectors. Annual average GHG emissions growth slowed, but absolute decadal increases have never been higher in human history. We identify a number of data gaps and data quality issues in global inventories and highlight their importance for monitoring progress towards international climate goals.
William G. Read, Gabriele Stiller, Stefan Lossow, Michael Kiefer, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Dale Hurst, Holger Vömel, Karen Rosenlof, Bianca M. Dinelli, Piera Raspollini, Gerald E. Nedoluha, John C. Gille, Yasuko Kasai, Patrick Eriksson, Chistopher E. Sioris, Kaley A. Walker, Katja Weigel, John P. Burrows, and Alexei Rozanov
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
This paper attempts to provide an assessment of the accuracy of 21 satellite based instruments that remotely measure atmospheric humidity in the upper troposphere of the Earth's atmosphere. The instruments made their measurements from 1984 to the present time; however, most of these instruments began operations after 2000 and only a few are still operational. The objective of this study is to quantify the accuracy of each satellite humidity data set.
Sudhanshu Pandey, Sander Houweling, and Arjo Segers
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Inverse models are used to calculate surface emissions of methane from atmospheric mole fraction measurements. However the model calculation when performed on multidecadal timescales can take months to finish. Here we show an order of magnitude wall clock time improvement in such calculations by physical parallelization of atmospheric chemical transport model.
Gianluca Di Natale, Marco Barucci, Claudio Belotti, Giovanni Bianchini, Francesco D'Amato, Samuele Del Bianco, Marco Gai, Alessio Montori, Ralf Sussmann, Silvia Viciani, Hannes Vogelmann, and Luca Palchetti
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6749–6758,Short summary
The importance of cirrus and mixed-phase clouds in the Earth radiation budget has been proven by many studies. In this paper the properties that characterize these clouds are retrieved from lidar and far-infrared spectral measurements performed in winter 2018/19 on the Zugspitze (Germany). The synergy of lidar and spectrometer measurements allowed us to assess the exponent k of the power-law relationship between the backscattering and the extinction coefficients.
Omaira E. García, Matthias Schneider, Eliezer Sepúlveda, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Emilio Cuevas, Ramón Ramos, Jochen Gross, Sabine Barthlott, Amelie N. Röhling, Esther Sanromá, Yenny González, Ángel J. Gómez-Peláez, Mónica Navarro-Comas, Olga Puentedura, Margarita Yela, Alberto Redondas, Virgilio Carreño, Sergio F. León-Luis, Enrique Reyes, Rosa D. García, Pedro P. Rivas, Pedro M. Romero-Campos, Carlos Torres, Natalia Prats, Miguel Hernández, and César López
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15519–15554,Short summary
This paper analyses the potential of ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar observations to monitor atmospheric gaseous composition and investigate multiple climate processes. To this end, this work reviews the FTIR programme of one of most relevant ground-based FTIR stations at a global scale, the subtropical Izaña Observatory (IZO, Spain), going over its history during its first 20 years of operation (1999–2018) and exploring its great value for long-term climate research.
Nathaniel J. Livesey, William G. Read, Lucien Froidevaux, Alyn Lambert, Michelle L. Santee, Michael J. Schwartz, Luis F. Millán, Robert F. Jarnot, Paul A. Wagner, Dale F. Hurst, Kaley A. Walker, Patrick E. Sheese, and Gerald E. Nedoluha
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15409–15430,Short summary
The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), an instrument on NASA's Aura mission launched in 2004, measures vertical profiles of the temperature and composition of Earth's "middle atmosphere" (the region from ~12 to ~100 km altitude). We describe how, among the 16 trace gases measured by MLS, the measurements of water vapor (H2O) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have started to drift since ~2010. The paper also discusses the origins of this drift and work to ameliorate it in a new version of the MLS dataset.
Mahesh Kumar Sha, Bavo Langerock, Jean-François L. Blavier, Thomas Blumenstock, Tobias Borsdorff, Matthias Buschmann, Angelika Dehn, Martine De Mazière, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, Omaira E. García, David W. T. Griffith, Michel Grutter, James W. Hannigan, Frank Hase, Pauli Heikkinen, Christian Hermans, Laura T. Iraci, Pascal Jeseck, Nicholas Jones, Rigel Kivi, Nicolas Kumps, Jochen Landgraf, Alba Lorente, Emmanuel Mahieu, Maria V. Makarova, Johan Mellqvist, Jean-Marc Metzger, Isamu Morino, Tomoo Nagahama, Justus Notholt, Hirofumi Ohyama, Ivan Ortega, Mathias Palm, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, John Robinson, Sébastien Roche, Coleen M. Roehl, Amelie N. Röhling, Constantina Rousogenous, Matthias Schneider, Kei Shiomi, Dan Smale, Wolfgang Stremme, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Osamu Uchino, Voltaire A. Velazco, Corinne Vigouroux, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Pucai Wang, Thorsten Warneke, Tyler Wizenberg, Debra Wunch, Shoma Yamanouchi, Yang Yang, and Minqiang Zhou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6249–6304,Short summary
This paper presents, for the first time, Sentinel-5 Precursor methane and carbon monoxide validation results covering a period from November 2017 to September 2020. For this study, we used global TCCON and NDACC-IRWG network data covering a wide range of atmospheric and surface conditions across different terrains. We also show the influence of a priori alignment, smoothing uncertainties and the sensitivity of the validation results towards the application of advanced co-location criteria.
Nora Mettig, Mark Weber, Alexei Rozanov, Carlo Arosio, John P. Burrows, Pepijn Veefkind, Anne M. Thompson, Richard Querel, Thierry Leblanc, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Rigel Kivi, and Matthew B. Tully
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6057–6082,Short summary
TROPOMI is a nadir-viewing satellite that has observed global atmospheric trace gases at unprecedented spatial resolution since 2017. The retrieval of ozone profiles with high accuracy has been demonstrated using the TOPAS (Tikhonov regularised Ozone Profile retrievAl with SCIATRAN) algorithm and applying appropriate spectral corrections to TROPOMI UV data. Ozone profiles from TROPOMI were compared to ozonesonde and lidar profiles, showing an agreement to within 5 % in the stratosphere.
Asher P. Mouat, Clare Paton-Walsh, Jack B. Simmons, Jhonathan Ramirez-Gamboa, David W. T. Griffith, and Jennifer Kaiser
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We examine emissions of volatile organic compounds from 2019/2020 wildfires in forested regions of Australia. We find that biomass burning in temperate regions of the US and Australia emit similar species, when variability in sampling methods are taken into account. This suggests that studies of wildfires in one region may be used to help improve air quality models in other parts of the world.
Taylor S. Jones, Jonathan E. Franklin, Jia Chen, Florian Dietrich, Kristian D. Hajny, Johannes C. Paetzold, Adrian Wenzel, Conor Gately, Elaine Gottlieb, Harrison Parker, Manvendra Dubey, Frank Hase, Paul B. Shepson, Levi H. Mielke, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13131–13147,Short summary
Methane emissions from leaks in natural gas pipes are often a large source in urban areas, but they are difficult to measure on a city-wide scale. Here we use an array of innovative methane sensors distributed around the city of Indianapolis and a new method of combining their data with an atmospheric model to accurately determine the magnitude of these emissions, which are about 70 % larger than predicted. This method can serve as a framework for cities trying to account for their emissions.
Malika Menoud, Carina van der Veen, Jaroslaw Necki, Jakub Bartyzel, Barbara Szénási, Mila Stanisavljević, Isabelle Pison, Philippe Bousquet, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13167–13185,Short summary
Using measurements of methane isotopes in ambient air and a 3D atmospheric transport model, in Krakow, Poland, we mainly detected fossil-fuel-related sources, coming from coal mining in Silesia and from the use of natural gas in the city. Emission inventories report large emissions from coal mine activity in Silesia, which is in agreement with our measurements. However, methane sources in the urban area of Krakow related to the use of fossil fuels might be underestimated in the inventories.
Luca Palchetti, Marco Barucci, Claudio Belotti, Giovanni Bianchini, Bertrand Cluzet, Francesco D'Amato, Samuele Del Bianco, Gianluca Di Natale, Marco Gai, Dina Khordakova, Alessio Montori, Hilke Oetjen, Markus Rettinger, Christian Rolf, Dirk Schuettemeyer, Ralf Sussmann, Silvia Viciani, Hannes Vogelmann, and Frank Gunther Wienhold
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4303–4312,Short summary
The FIRMOS far-infrared (IR) prototype, developed for the preparation of the ESA FORUM mission, was deployed for the first time at Mt. Zugspitze at 3000 m altitude to measure the far-IR spectrum of atmospheric emissions. The measurements, including co-located radiometers, lidars, radio soundings, weather, and surface properties, provide a unique dataset to study radiative properties of water vapour, cirrus clouds, and snow emissivity over the IR emissions, including the under-explored far-IR.
Matthias M. Frey, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Darko Dubravica, Jochen Groß, Frank Göttsche, Martin Handjaba, Petrus Amadhila, Roland Mushi, Isamu Morino, Kei Shiomi, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Martine de Mazière, and David F. Pollard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5887–5911,Short summary
In this study, we present measurements of carbon dioxide, methane and carbon monoxide from a recently established site in Gobabeb, Namibia. Gobabeb is the first site observing these gases on the African mainland and improves the global coverage of measurement sites. Gobabeb is a hyperarid desert site, offering unique characteristics. Measurements started 2015 as part of the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network. We compare our results with other datasets and find a good agreement.
Francesco Grieco, Kristell Pérot, Donal Murtagh, Patrick Eriksson, Bengt Rydberg, Michael Kiefer, Maya Garcia-Comas, Alyn Lambert, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5823–5857,Short summary
We present improved Odin/SMR mesospheric H2O concentration and temperature data sets, reprocessed assuming a bigger sideband leakage of the instrument. The validation study shows how the improved SMR data sets agree better with other instruments' observations than the old SMR version did. Given their unique time extension and geographical coverage, and H2O being a good tracer of mesospheric circulation, the new data sets are valuable for the study of dynamical processes and multi-year trends.
Antoine Berchet, Espen Sollum, Rona L. Thompson, Isabelle Pison, Joël Thanwerdas, Grégoire Broquet, Frédéric Chevallier, Tuula Aalto, Adrien Berchet, Peter Bergamaschi, Dominik Brunner, Richard Engelen, Audrey Fortems-Cheiney, Christoph Gerbig, Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Jean-Matthieu Haussaire, Stephan Henne, Sander Houweling, Ute Karstens, Werner L. Kutsch, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Guillaume Monteil, Paul I. Palmer, Jacob C. A. van Peet, Wouter Peters, Philippe Peylin, Elise Potier, Christian Rödenbeck, Marielle Saunois, Marko Scholze, Aki Tsuruta, and Yuanhong Zhao
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5331–5354,Short summary
We present here the Community Inversion Framework (CIF) to help rationalize development efforts and leverage the strengths of individual inversion systems into a comprehensive framework. The CIF is a programming protocol to allow various inversion bricks to be exchanged among researchers. The ensemble of bricks makes a flexible, transparent and open-source Python-based tool. We describe the main structure and functionalities and demonstrate it in a simple academic case.
Yi Yin, Frederic Chevallier, Philippe Ciais, Philippe Bousquet, Marielle Saunois, Bo Zheng, John Worden, A. Anthony Bloom, Robert J. Parker, Daniel J. Jacob, Edward J. Dlugokencky, and Christian Frankenberg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12631–12647,Short summary
The growth of methane, the second-most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, has been accelerating in recent years. Using an ensemble of multi-tracer atmospheric inversions constrained by surface or satellite observations, we show that global methane emissions increased by nearly 1 % per year from 2010–2017, with leading contributions from the tropics and East Asia.
Rebecca D. Kutzner, Juan Cuesta, Pascale Chelin, Jean-Eudes Petit, Mokhtar Ray, Xavier Landsheere, Benoît Tournadre, Jean-Charles Dupont, Amandine Rosso, Frank Hase, Johannes Orphal, and Matthias Beekmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12091–12111,Short summary
Our work investigates the diurnal evolution of atmospheric ammonia concentrations during a major pollution event. It analyses it in regard of both chemical (gas–particle conversion) and physical (vertical mixing, meteorology) processes in the atmosphere. These mechanisms are key for understanding the evolution of the physicochemical state of the atmosphere; therefore, it clearly fits into the scope of Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics.
Farahnaz Khosrawi, Kinya Toride, Kei Yoshimura, Christopher J. Diekmann, Benjamin Ertl, Frank Hase, and Matthias Schneider
Weather Clim. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We assess with an Observation System Simulation Experiment the potential of mid-tropospheric water isotopologue data for constraining uncertainties in meteorological analysis fields in the tropics. Our assimilation experiments indicate that isotopologue observations have the potential to reduce the uncertainties of diabatic heating rates and meteorological variables in the tropics and in consequence offer potential for improving meteorological analysis in the tropical regions.
Sara M. Defratyka, Jean-Daniel Paris, Camille Yver-Kwok, Daniel Loeb, James France, Jon Helmore, Nigel Yarrow, Valérie Gros, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5049–5069,Short summary
We consider the possibility of using the CRDS Picarro G2201-i instrument, originally designed for isotopic CH4 and CO2, for measurements of ethane : methane in near-source conditions. The work involved laboratory tests, a controlled release experiment and mobile measurements. We show the potential of determining ethane : methane with 50 ppb ethane uncertainty. The instrument can correctly estimate the ratio in CH4 enhancements of 1 ppm and more, as can be found at strongly emitting sites.
Dmitry V. Ionov, Maria V. Makarova, Frank Hase, Stefani C. Foka, Vladimir S. Kostsov, Carlos Alberti, Thomas Blumenstock, Thorsten Warneke, and Yana A. Virolainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10939–10963,Short summary
Megacities are a significant source of emissions of various substances in the atmosphere, including carbon dioxide, which is the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. In 2019–2020, the Emission Monitoring Mobile Experiment was carried out in St Petersburg, which is the second-largest industrial city in Russia. The results of this experiment, coupled with numerical modelling, helped to estimate the amount of CO2 emitted by the city. This value was twice as high as predicted.
Beata Bukosa, Jenny Fisher, Nicholas Deutscher, and Dylan Jones
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Human activities led to rising levels of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO)) in the atmosphere, threatening our future. We use models and measurements to predict and understand the climatological impact of these gases. Here, we describe a new simulation in the GEOS-Chem model that uses a more accurate method to simulate CO2, CH4 and CO, through their chemical dependence. Relative to the original simulations our results agree better with measurements.
Ilya Stanevich, Dylan B. A. Jones, Kimberly Strong, Martin Keller, Daven K. Henze, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Debra Wunch, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Ralf Sussmann, Matthias Schneider, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Voltaire A. Velazco, Kaley A. Walker, and Feng Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9545–9572,Short summary
We explore the utility of a weak-constraint (WC) four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation scheme for mitigating systematic errors in methane simulation in the GEOS-Chem model. We use data from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and show that, compared to the traditional 4D-Var approach, the WC scheme improves the agreement between the model and independent observations. We find that the WC corrections to the model provide insight into the source of the errors.
Matthieu Dogniaux, Cyril Crevoisier, Raymond Armante, Virginie Capelle, Thibault Delahaye, Vincent Cassé, Martine De Mazière, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, Omaira E. Garcia, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, David F. Pollard, Coleen M. Roehl, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4689–4706,Short summary
We present the Adaptable 4A Inversion (5AI), an implementation of the optimal estimation (OE) algorithm, relying on the Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas (4A/OP) radiative transfer model, that enables the retrieval of greenhouse gas atmospheric weighted columns from infrared measurements. It is tested on a sample of Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 observations, and its results satisfactorily compare to several reference products, thus showing the reliability of 5AI OE implementation.
Thomas von Clarmann, Udo Grabowski, Gabriele P. Stiller, Beatriz M. Monge-Sanz, Norbert Glatthor, and Sylvia Kellmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8823–8843,Short summary
Measurements of long-lived trace gases (SF6, CFC-11, CFC-12, HCFC-12, CCl4, N2O, CH4, H2O, and CO) performed with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) have been used to infer the stratospheric and mesospheric meridional circulation. The MIPAS data set covers the time period from July 2002 to April 2012. The method used for this purpose was the direct inversion of the two-dimensional continuity equation. Multiannual monthly mean circulation fields are presented.
Michael Kiefer, Thomas von Clarmann, Bernd Funke, Maya García-Comas, Norbert Glatthor, Udo Grabowski, Sylvia Kellmann, Anne Kleinert, Alexandra Laeng, Andrea Linden, Manuel López-Puertas, Daniel R. Marsh, and Gabriele P. Stiller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4111–4138,Short summary
An improved dataset of vertical temperature profiles of the Earth's atmosphere in the altitude range 5–70 km is presented. These profiles are derived from measurements of the MIPAS instrument onboard ESA's Envisat satellite. The overall improvements are based on upgrades in the input data and several improvements in the data processing approach. Both of these are discussed, and an extensive error discussion is included. Enhancements of the new dataset are demonstrated by means of examples.
Astrid Müller, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Takafumi Sugita, Toshinobu Machida, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Prabir K. Patra, Joshua Laughner, and David Crisp
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8255–8271,Short summary
Over oceans, high uncertainties in satellite CO2 retrievals exist due to limited reference data. We combine commercial ship and aircraft observations and, with the aid of model calculations, obtain column-averaged mixing ratios of CO2 (XCO2) data over the Pacific Ocean. This new dataset has great potential as a robust reference for XCO2 measured from space and can help to better understand changes in the carbon cycle in response to climate change using satellite observations.
Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Chunjing Qiu, Philippe Ciais, Rona L. Thompson, Philippe Peylin, Matthew J. McGrath, Efisio Solazzo, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Peter Bergamaschi, Dominik Brunner, Glen P. Peters, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Pierre Regnier, Ronny Lauerwald, David Bastviken, Aki Tsuruta, Wilfried Winiwarter, Prabir K. Patra, Matthias Kuhnert, Gabriel D. Oreggioni, Monica Crippa, Marielle Saunois, Lucia Perugini, Tiina Markkanen, Tuula Aalto, Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Hanqin Tian, Yuanzhi Yao, Chris Wilson, Giulia Conchedda, Dirk Günther, Adrian Leip, Pete Smith, Jean-Matthieu Haussaire, Antti Leppänen, Alistair J. Manning, Joe McNorton, Patrick Brockmann, and Albertus Johannes Dolman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2307–2362,Short summary
This study is topical and provides a state-of-the-art scientific overview of data availability from bottom-up and top-down CH4 and N2O emissions in the EU27 and UK. The data integrate recent emission inventories with process-based model data and regional/global inversions for the European domain, aiming at reconciling them with official country-level UNFCCC national GHG inventories in support to policy and to facilitate real-time verification procedures.
Joël Thanwerdas, Marielle Saunois, Antoine Berchet, Isabelle Pison, Bruce H. Vaughn, Sylvia Englund Michel, and Philippe Bousquet
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for GMDShort summary
Estimating CH4 sources by exploiting observations within an inverse modeling framework is a powerful approach. Here, a new system designed to assimilate δ13C(CH4) observations together with CH4 observations is presented. By optimizing both emissions and associated source signatures of multiple emission categories, this new system can efficiently differentiate co-located emission categories and provide estimates of CH4 sources that are consistent with isotopic data.
Stefan Noël, Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Jakob Borchardt, Michael Hilker, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Antonio Di Noia, Hiroshi Suto, Yukio Yoshida, Matthias Buschmann, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, James R. Podolske, David F. Pollard, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3837–3869,Short summary
We present the first GOSAT and GOSAT-2 XCO2 data derived with the FOCAL retrieval algorithm. Comparisons of the GOSAT-FOCAL product with other data reveal long-term agreement within about 1 ppm over 1 decade, differences in seasonal variations of about 0.5 ppm, and a mean regional bias to ground-based TCCON data of 0.56 ppm with a mean scatter of 1.89 ppm. GOSAT-2-FOCAL data are preliminary only, but first comparisons show that they compare well with the GOSAT-FOCAL results and TCCON.
Michaela I. Hegglin, Susann Tegtmeier, John Anderson, Adam E. Bourassa, Samuel Brohede, Doug Degenstein, Lucien Froidevaux, Bernd Funke, John Gille, Yasuko Kasai, Erkki T. Kyrölä, Jerry Lumpe, Donal Murtagh, Jessica L. Neu, Kristell Pérot, Ellis E. Remsberg, Alexei Rozanov, Matthew Toohey, Joachim Urban, Thomas von Clarmann, Kaley A. Walker, Hsiang-Jui Wang, Carlo Arosio, Robert Damadeo, Ryan A. Fuller, Gretchen Lingenfelser, Christopher McLinden, Diane Pendlebury, Chris Roth, Niall J. Ryan, Christopher Sioris, Lesley Smith, and Katja Weigel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1855–1903,Short summary
An overview of the SPARC Data Initiative is presented, to date the most comprehensive assessment of stratospheric composition measurements spanning 1979–2018. Measurements of 26 chemical constituents obtained from an international suite of space-based limb sounders were compiled into vertically resolved, zonal monthly mean time series. The quality and consistency of these gridded datasets are then evaluated using a climatological validation approach and a range of diagnostics.
Viktoria F. Sofieva, Monika Szeląg, Johanna Tamminen, Erkki Kyrölä, Doug Degenstein, Chris Roth, Daniel Zawada, Alexei Rozanov, Carlo Arosio, John P. Burrows, Mark Weber, Alexandra Laeng, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Lucien Froidevaux, Nathaniel Livesey, Michel van Roozendael, and Christian Retscher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6707–6720,Short summary
The MErged GRIdded Dataset of Ozone Profiles is a long-term (2001–2018) stratospheric ozone profile climate data record with resolved longitudinal structure that combines the data from six limb satellite instruments. The dataset can be used for various analyses, some of which are discussed in the paper. In particular, regionally and vertically resolved ozone trends are evaluated, including trends in the polar regions.
Nicholas M. Deutscher, Travis A. Naylor, Christopher G. R. Caldow, Hamish L. McDougall, Alex G. Carter, and David W. T. Griffith
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3119–3130,Short summary
This work describes the performance of an open-path measurement system for greenhouse gases in an extended field trial. The instrument obtained measurement repeatability of 0.1 % or better for CO2 and CH4 measurements over a 1.55 km one-way pathway. Comparison to co-located in situ measurements allows characterisation of biases relative to global reference scales. The research was done to show the applicability of the technique and its ability to detect atmospheric-relevant sources and sinks.
Hella van Asperen, João Rafael Alves-Oliveira, Thorsten Warneke, Bruce Forsberg, Alessandro Carioca de Araújo, and Justus Notholt
Biogeosciences, 18, 2609–2625,Short summary
Termites are insects that are highly abundant in tropical ecosystems. It is known that termites emit CH4, an important greenhouse gas, but their absolute emission remains uncertain. In the Amazon rainforest, we measured CH4 emissions from termite nests and groups of termites. In addition, we tested a fast and non-destructive field method to estimate termite nest colony size. We found that termites play a significant role in an ecosystem's CH4 budget and probably emit more than currently assumed.
Stijn Naus, Stephen A. Montzka, Prabir K. Patra, and Maarten C. Krol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4809–4824,Short summary
Following up on previous box model studies, we employ a 3D transport model to estimate variations in the hydroxyl radical (OH) from observations of methyl chloroform (MCF). We derive small interannual OH variations that are consistent with variations in the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. We also find evidence for the release of MCF from oceans in atmospheric gradients of MCF. Both findings highlight the added value of a 3D transport model since box model studies did not identify these effects.
Qiansi Tu, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Matthias Schneider, Andreas Schneider, Rigel Kivi, Pauli Heikkinen, Benjamin Ertl, Christopher Diekmann, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Michael Sommer, Tobias Borsdorff, and Uwe Raffalski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1993–2011,Short summary
We compare column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of water vapor (XH2O) retrievals from the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON) with two co-located ground-based spectrometers as references at two boreal sites. Our study supports the assumption that COCCON also delivers a well-characterized XH2O data product. This is the first published study applying COCCON for MUSICA IASI and TROPOMI validation.
David F. Pollard, John Robinson, Hisako Shiona, and Dan Smale
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1501–1510,Short summary
This work describes the steps taken to ensure a continuous, high-quality dataset of column-averaged greenhouse gas retrievals from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) site at Lauder, New Zealand, following a change in the Fourier transform spectrometer used to make the measurements from which the retrievals are made.
Patrick E. Sheese, Kaley A. Walker, Chris D. Boone, Doug A. Degenstein, Felicia Kolonjari, David Plummer, Douglas E. Kinnison, Patrick Jöckel, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1425–1438,Short summary
Output from climate chemistry models (CMAM, EMAC, and WACCM) is used to estimate the expected geophysical variability of ozone concentrations between coincident satellite instrument measurement times and geolocations. We use the Canadian ACE-FTS and OSIRIS instruments as a case study. Ensemble mean estimates are used to optimize coincidence criteria between the two instruments, allowing for the use of more coincident profiles while providing an estimate of the geophysical variation.
Emily M. Gordon, Annika Seppälä, Bernd Funke, Johanna Tamminen, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2819–2836,Short summary
Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) is the rain of solar energetic particles into the Earth's atmosphere. EPP is known to deplete O3 in the polar mesosphere–upper stratosphere via the formation of NOx. NOx also causes chlorine deactivation in the lower stratosphere and has, thus, been proposed to potentially result in reduced ozone depletion in the spring. We provide the first evidence to show that NOx formed by EPP is able to remove active chlorine, resulting in enhanced total ozone column.
Matthias Schneider, Benjamin Ertl, Christopher J. Diekmann, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Amelie N. Röhling, Frank Hase, Darko Dubravica, Omaira E. García, Eliezer Sepúlveda, Tobias Borsdorff, Jochen Landgraf, Alba Lorente, Huilin Chen, Rigel Kivi, Thomas Laemmel, Michel Ramonet, Cyril Crevoisier, Jérome Pernin, Martin Steinbacher, Frank Meinhardt, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, Voltaire A. Velazco, and David F. Pollard
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
We present a computationally very efficient method for the synergetic use of different remote sensing data sets. We apply the method to IASI vertical profile and TROPOMI total column space borne methane observations and thus gain sensitivity for the tropospheric methane partial columns, which is not achievable by the individual use of TROPOMI and IASI. These synergetic effects are evaluated theoretically and by inter-comparisons to independent references of TCCON, AirCore, and GAW.
Thomas Blumenstock, Frank Hase, Axel Keens, Denis Czurlok, Orfeo Colebatch, Omaira Garcia, David W. T. Griffith, Michel Grutter, James W. Hannigan, Pauli Heikkinen, Pascal Jeseck, Nicholas Jones, Rigel Kivi, Erik Lutsch, Maria Makarova, Hamud K. Imhasin, Johan Mellqvist, Isamu Morino, Tomoo Nagahama, Justus Notholt, Ivan Ortega, Mathias Palm, Uwe Raffalski, Markus Rettinger, John Robinson, Matthias Schneider, Christian Servais, Dan Smale, Wolfgang Stremme, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, and Voltaire A. Velazco
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1239–1252,Short summary
This study investigates the level of channeling (optical resonances) of each FTIR spectrometer within the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). Since the air gap of the beam splitter is a significant source of channeling, we propose new beam splitters with an increased wedge of the air gap. This study shows the potential for reducing channeling in the FTIR spectrometers operated by the NDACC, thereby increasing the quality of recorded spectra across the network.
Maria V. Makarova, Carlos Alberti, Dmitry V. Ionov, Frank Hase, Stefani C. Foka, Thomas Blumenstock, Thorsten Warneke, Yana A. Virolainen, Vladimir S. Kostsov, Matthias Frey, Anatoly V. Poberovskii, Yuri M. Timofeyev, Nina N. Paramonova, Kristina A. Volkova, Nikita A. Zaitsev, Egor Y. Biryukov, Sergey I. Osipov, Boris K. Makarov, Alexander V. Polyakov, Viktor M. Ivakhov, Hamud Kh. Imhasin, and Eugene F. Mikhailov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1047–1073,Short summary
Fundamental understanding of the major processes driving climate change is a key problem which is to be solved, not only on a global but also on a regional scale. The Emission Monitoring Mobile Experiment (EMME) carried out in 2019 with two portable Bruker EM27/SUN spectrometers as core instruments provided new information on the emissions of greenhouse (CO2, CH4) and reactive (CO, NOx) gases from St. Petersburg (Russia), which is the largest northern megacity with a population of 5 million.
Alexandra Klemme, Tim Rixen, Denise Müller-Dum, Moritz Müller, Justus Notholt, and Thorsten Warneke
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Tropical peat-draining rivers are a natural hotspot for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Measurement-based studies state lower emissions than model-based estimates suggested. We compiled data from ten Southeast Asian rivers and found that CO2 production within these rivers is hampered by low water pH, providing a natural threshold for CO2 emissions. Furthermore, enhanced carbonate inputs, e.g. caused by human activities, suspend this natural threshold and cause increased CO2 emissions.
Marvin Knapp, Ralph Kleinschek, Frank Hase, Anna Agustí-Panareda, Antje Inness, Jérôme Barré, Jochen Landgraf, Tobias Borsdorff, Stefan Kinne, and André Butz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 199–211,Short summary
We developed a shipborne variant of a remote sensing spectrometer for direct sunlight measurements of column-averaged atmospheric mixing ratios of carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide. The instrument was deployed on the research vessel Sonne during a longitudinal transect over the Pacific during June 2019. The campaign yielded more than 32 000 observations which compare excellently to atmospheric composition data from a state-of-the-art model (CAMS) and satellite observations (TROPOMI).
Alba Lorente, Tobias Borsdorff, Andre Butz, Otto Hasekamp, Joost aan de Brugh, Andreas Schneider, Lianghai Wu, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Debra Wunch, David F. Pollard, Kei Shiomi, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Voltaire A. Velazco, Coleen M. Roehl, Paul O. Wennberg, Thorsten Warneke, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 665–684,Short summary
TROPOMI aboard Sentinel-5P satellite provides methane (CH4) measurements with exceptional temporal and spatial resolution. The study describes a series of improvements developed to retrieve CH4 from TROPOMI. The updated CH4 product features (among others) a more accurate a posteriori correction derived independently of any reference data. The validation of the improved data product shows good agreement with ground-based and satellite measurements, which highlights the quality of the TROPOMI CH4.
Claudia Rivera Cárdenas, Cesar Guarín, Wolfgang Stremme, Martina M. Friedrich, Alejandro Bezanilla, Diana Rivera Ramos, Cristina A. Mendoza-Rodríguez, Michel Grutter, Thomas Blumenstock, and Frank Hase
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 595–613,
Tijl Verhoelst, Steven Compernolle, Gaia Pinardi, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Henk J. Eskes, Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Ann Mari Fjæraa, José Granville, Sander Niemeijer, Alexander Cede, Martin Tiefengraber, François Hendrick, Andrea Pazmiño, Alkiviadis Bais, Ariane Bazureau, K. Folkert Boersma, Kristof Bognar, Angelika Dehn, Sebastian Donner, Aleksandr Elokhov, Manuel Gebetsberger, Florence Goutail, Michel Grutter de la Mora, Aleksandr Gruzdev, Myrto Gratsea, Georg H. Hansen, Hitoshi Irie, Nis Jepsen, Yugo Kanaya, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Rigel Kivi, Karin Kreher, Pieternel F. Levelt, Cheng Liu, Moritz Müller, Monica Navarro Comas, Ankie J. M. Piters, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Thierry Portafaix, Cristina Prados-Roman, Olga Puentedura, Richard Querel, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, John Rimmer, Claudia Rivera Cárdenas, Lidia Saavedra de Miguel, Valery P. Sinyakov, Wolfgang Stremme, Kimberly Strong, Michel Van Roozendael, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Thomas Wagner, Folkard Wittrock, Margarita Yela González, and Claus Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 481–510,Short summary
This paper reports on the ground-based validation of the NO2 data produced operationally by the TROPOMI instrument on board the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite. Tropospheric, stratospheric, and total NO2 columns are compared to measurements collected from MAX-DOAS, ZSL-DOAS, and PGN/Pandora instruments respectively. The products are found to satisfy mission requirements in general, though negative mean differences are found at sites with high pollution levels. Potential causes are discussed.
Sudhanshu Pandey, Sander Houweling, Alba Lorente, Tobias Borsdorff, Maria Tsivlidou, A. Anthony Bloom, Benjamin Poulter, Zhen Zhang, and Ilse Aben
Biogeosciences, 18, 557–572,Short summary
We use atmospheric methane observations from the novel TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI; Sentinel-5p) to estimate methane emissions from South Sudan's wetlands. Our emission estimates are an order of magnitude larger than the estimate of process-based wetland models. We find that this underestimation by the models is likely due to their misrepresentation of the wetlands' inundation extent and temperature dependences.
Ivar R. van der Velde, Guido R. van der Werf, Sander Houweling, Henk J. Eskes, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Tobias Borsdorff, and Ilse Aben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 597–616,Short summary
This paper compares the relative atmospheric enhancements of CO and NO2 measured by the space-based instrument TROPOMI over different fire-prone ecosystems around the world. We find distinct spatial and temporal patterns in the ΔNO2 / ΔCO ratio that correspond to regional differences in combustion efficiency. This joint analysis provides a better understanding of regional-scale combustion characteristics and can help the fire modeling community to improve existing global emission inventories.
Susan S. Kulawik, John R. Worden, Vivienne H. Payne, Dejian Fu, Steven C. Wofsy, Kathryn McKain, Colm Sweeney, Bruce C. Daube Jr., Alan Lipton, Igor Polonsky, Yuguang He, Karen E. Cady-Pereira, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Daniel J. Jacob, and Yi Yin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 335–354,Short summary
This paper shows comparisons of a new single-footprint methane product from the AIRS satellite to aircraft-based observations. We show that this AIRS methane product provides useful information to study seasonal and global methane trends of this important greenhouse gas.
A. Anthony Bloom, Kevin W. Bowman, Junjie Liu, Alexandra G. Konings, John R. Worden, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Victoria Meyer, John T. Reager, Helen M. Worden, Zhe Jiang, Gregory R. Quetin, T. Luke Smallman, Jean-François Exbrayat, Yi Yin, Sassan S. Saatchi, Mathew Williams, and David S. Schimel
Biogeosciences, 17, 6393–6422,Short summary
We use a model of the 2001–2015 tropical land carbon cycle, with satellite measurements of land and atmospheric carbon, to disentangle lagged and concurrent effects (due to past and concurrent meteorological events, respectively) on annual land–atmosphere carbon exchanges. The variability of lagged effects explains most 2001–2015 inter-annual carbon flux variations. We conclude that concurrent and lagged effects need to be accurately resolved to better predict the world's land carbon sink.
Seidai Nara, Tomohiro O. Sato, Takayoshi Yamada, Tamaki Fujinawa, Kota Kuribayashi, Takeshi Manabe, Lucien Froidevaux, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Kaley A. Walker, Jian Xu, Franz Schreier, Yvan J. Orsolini, Varavut Limpasuvan, Nario Kuno, and Yasuko Kasai
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6837–6852,Short summary
In the atmosphere, more than 80 % of chlorine compounds are anthropogenic. Hydrogen chloride (HCl), the main stratospheric chlorine reservoir, is useful to estimate the total budget of the atmospheric chlorine compounds. We report, for the first time, the HCl vertical distribution from the middle troposphere to the lower thermosphere using a high-sensitivity SMILES measurement; the data quality is quantified by comparisons with other measurements and via theoretical error analysis.
Robert J. Parker, Alex Webb, Hartmut Boesch, Peter Somkuti, Rocio Barrio Guillo, Antonio Di Noia, Nikoleta Kalaitzi, Jasdeep S. Anand, Peter Bergamaschi, Frederic Chevallier, Paul I. Palmer, Liang Feng, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Coleen Roehl, Mahesh K. Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, Thorsten Warneke, Paul O. Wennberg, and Debra Wunch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3383–3412,Short summary
This work presents the latest release of the University of Leicester GOSAT methane data and acts as the definitive description of this dataset. We detail the processing, validation and evaluation involved in producing these data and highlight its many applications. With now over a decade of global atmospheric methane observations, this dataset has helped, and will continue to help, us better understand the global methane budget and investigate how it may respond to a future changing climate.
Benjamin Gaubert, Louisa K. Emmons, Kevin Raeder, Simone Tilmes, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Avelino F. Arellano Jr., Nellie Elguindi, Claire Granier, Wenfu Tang, Jérôme Barré, Helen M. Worden, Rebecca R. Buchholz, David P. Edwards, Philipp Franke, Jeffrey L. Anderson, Marielle Saunois, Jason Schroeder, Jung-Hun Woo, Isobel J. Simpson, Donald R. Blake, Simone Meinardi, Paul O. Wennberg, John Crounse, Alex Teng, Michelle Kim, Russell R. Dickerson, Hao He, Xinrong Ren, Sally E. Pusede, and Glenn S. Diskin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14617–14647,Short summary
This study investigates carbon monoxide pollution in East Asia during spring using a numerical model, satellite remote sensing, and aircraft measurements. We found an underestimation of emission sources. Correcting the emission bias can improve air quality forecasting of carbon monoxide and other species including ozone. Results also suggest that controlling VOC and CO emissions, in addition to widespread NOx controls, can improve ozone pollution over East Asia.
Joram J. D. Hooghiem, Maria Elena Popa, Thomas Röckmann, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Ines Tritscher, Rolf Müller, Rigel Kivi, and Huilin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13985–14003,Short summary
Wildfires release a large quantity of pollutants that can reach the stratosphere through pyro-convection events. In September 2017, a stratospheric plume was accidentally sampled during balloon soundings in northern Finland. The source of the plume was identified to be wildfire smoke based on in situ measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and stable isotope analysis of CO. Furthermore, the age of the plume was estimated using backwards transport modelling to be ~24 d, with its origin in Canada.
Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Nikos Daskalakis, Angelos Gkouvousis, Andreas Hilboll, Twan van Noije, Jason E. Williams, Philippe Le Sager, Vincent Huijnen, Sander Houweling, Tommi Bergman, Johann Rasmus Nüß, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Maria Kanakidou, and Maarten C. Krol
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5507–5548,Short summary
This work documents and evaluates the detailed tropospheric gas-phase chemical mechanism MOGUNTIA in the three-dimensional chemistry transport model TM5-MP. The Rosenbrock solver, as generated by the KPP software, is implemented in the chemistry code, which can successfully replace the classical Euler backward integration method. The MOGUNTIA scheme satisfactorily simulates a large suite of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are observed in the atmosphere at significant levels.
Yuanhong Zhao, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Xin Lin, Antoine Berchet, Michaela I. Hegglin, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas Kinnison, Ole Kirner, Sarah Strode, Simone Tilmes, Edward J. Dlugokencky, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13011–13022,Short summary
Decadal trends and variations in OH are critical for understanding atmospheric CH4 evolution. We quantify the impacts of OH trends and variations on the CH4 budget by conducting CH4 inversions on a decadal scale with an ensemble of OH fields. We find the negative OH anomalies due to enhanced fires can reduce the optimized CH4 emissions by up to 10 Tg yr−1 during El Niño years and the positive OH trend from 1986 to 2010 results in a ∼ 23 Tg yr−1 additional increase in optimized CH4 emissions.
John Robinson, Dan Smale, David Pollard, and Hisako Shiona
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5855–5871,Short summary
Solar trackers are used by spectrometers to measure atmospheric trace gas concentrations using direct-sun spectroscopy. The ideal tracker should be sufficiently accurate, highly reliable, and with a longevity that exceeds the lifetime of the spectrometer which it serves. It should also be affordable, easy to use, and not too complex should maintenance be required. We present a design that fulfils these requirements using some simple innovations.
Erik Lutsch, Kimberly Strong, Dylan B. A. Jones, Thomas Blumenstock, Stephanie Conway, Jenny A. Fisher, James W. Hannigan, Frank Hase, Yasuko Kasai, Emmanuel Mahieu, Maria Makarova, Isamu Morino, Tomoo Nagahama, Justus Notholt, Ivan Ortega, Mathias Palm, Anatoly V. Poberovskii, Ralf Sussmann, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12813–12851,Short summary
This paper describes the use of a network of 10 Arctic and midlatitude ground-based FTIR measurement sites to detect enhancements of the wildfire tracers carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, and ethane from 2003 to 2018. A tagged CO GEOS-Chem simulation is used for source attribution and to evaluate the relative contribution of CO sources to the FTIR measurements. The use of FTIR measurements allowed for the emission ratios of hydrogen cyanide and ethane to be quantified.
Hirofumi Ohyama, Isamu Morino, Voltaire A. Velazco, Theresa Klausner, Gerry Bagtasa, Matthäus Kiel, Matthias Frey, Akihiro Hori, Osamu Uchino, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Joshua P. DiGangi, Yonghoon Choi, Glenn S. Diskin, Sally E. Pusede, Alina Fiehn, Anke Roiger, Michael Lichtenstern, Hans Schlager, Pao K. Wang, Charles C.-K. Chou, Maria Dolores Andrés-Hernández, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5149–5163,Short summary
Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 measured by a solar viewing portable Fourier transform spectrometer (EM27/SUN) were validated with in situ profile data obtained during the transfer flights of two aircraft campaigns. Atmospheric dynamical properties based on ERA5 and WRF-Chem were used as criteria for selecting the best aircraft profiles for the validation. The resulting air-mass-independent correction factors for the EM27/SUN data were 0.9878 for CO2 and 0.9829 for CH4.
Nicole Jacobs, William R. Simpson, Debra Wunch, Christopher W. O'Dell, Gregory B. Osterman, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Qiansi Tu, Matthias Frey, Manvendra K. Dubey, Harrison A. Parker, Rigel Kivi, and Pauli Heikkinen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5033–5063,Short summary
The boreal forest is the largest seasonally varying biospheric CO2-exchange region on Earth. This region is also undergoing amplified climate warming, leading to concerns about the potential for altered regional carbon exchange. Satellite missions, such as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) project, can measure CO2 abundance over the boreal forest but need validation for the assurance of accuracy. Therefore, we carried out a ground-based validation of OCO-2 CO2 data at three locations.
Francesco Grieco, Kristell Pérot, Donal Murtagh, Patrick Eriksson, Peter Forkman, Bengt Rydberg, Bernd Funke, Kaley A. Walker, and Hugh C. Pumphrey
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5013–5031,Short summary
We present a unique – by time extension and geographical coverage – dataset of satellite observations of carbon monoxide (CO) in the mesosphere which will allow us to study dynamical processes, since CO is a very good tracer of circulation in the mesosphere. Previously, the dataset was unusable due to instrumental artefacts that affected the measurements. We identify the cause of the artefacts, eliminate them and prove the quality of the results by comparing with other instrument measurements.
Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Chelsea R. Thompson, Kenneth C. Aikin, Teresa Campos, Hannah Clark, Róisín Commane, Bruce Daube, Glenn W. Diskin, James W. Elkins, Ru-Shan Gao, Audrey Gaudel, Eric J. Hintsa, Bryan J. Johnson, Rigel Kivi, Kathryn McKain, Fred L. Moore, David D. Parrish, Richard Querel, Eric Ray, Ricardo Sánchez, Colm Sweeney, David W. Tarasick, Anne M. Thompson, Valérie Thouret, Jacquelyn C. Witte, Steve C. Wofsy, and Thomas B. Ryerson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10611–10635,
Mahesh Kumar Sha, Martine De Mazière, Justus Notholt, Thomas Blumenstock, Huilin Chen, Angelika Dehn, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Pauli Heikkinen, Christian Hermans, Alex Hoffmann, Marko Huebner, Nicholas Jones, Rigel Kivi, Bavo Langerock, Christof Petri, Francis Scolas, Qiansi Tu, and Damien Weidmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4791–4839,Short summary
We present the results of the 2017 FRM4GHG campaign at the Sodankylä TCCON site aimed at characterising the assessment of several low-cost portable instruments for precise solar absorption measurements of column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2, CH4, and CO. The test instruments provided stable and precise measurements of these gases with quantified small biases. This qualifies the instruments to complement TCCON and expand the global coverage of ground-based measurements of these gases.
Qiansi Tu, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Rigel Kivi, Pauli Heikkinen, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Uwe Raffalski, Jochen Landgraf, Alba Lorente, Tobias Borsdorff, Huilin Chen, Florian Dietrich, and Jia Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4751–4771,Short summary
Two COCCON instruments are used to observe multiyear greenhouse gases in boreal areas and are compared with the CAMS analysis and S5P satellite data. These three datasets predict greenhouse gas gradients with reasonable agreement. The results indicate that the COCCON instrument has the capability of measuring gradients on regional scales, and observations performed with the portable spectrometers can contribute to inferring sources and sinks and to validating spaceborne greenhouse gases.
Srijana Lama, Sander Houweling, K. Folkert Boersma, Henk Eskes, Ilse Aben, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Maarten C. Krol, Han Dolman, Tobias Borsdorff, and Alba Lorente
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10295–10310,Short summary
Rapid urbanization has increased the consumption of fossil fuel, contributing the degradation of urban air quality. Burning efficiency is a major factor determining the impact of fuel burning on the environment. We quantify the burning efficiency of fossil fuel use over six megacities using satellite remote sensing data. City governance can use these results to understand air pollution scenarios and to formulate effective air pollution control strategies.
Ilya Stanevich, Dylan B. A. Jones, Kimberly Strong, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Debra Wunch, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Ralf Sussmann, Matthias Schneider, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Voltaire A. Velazco, Kaley A. Walker, and Feng Deng
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3839–3862,Short summary
Systematic errors in atmospheric models pose a challenge for inverse modeling studies of methane (CH4) emissions. We evaluated the CH4 simulation in the GEOS-Chem model at the horizontal resolutions of 4° × 5° and 2° × 2.5°. Our analysis identified resolution-dependent biases in the model, which we attributed to discrepancies between the two model resolutions in vertical transport in the troposphere and in stratosphere–troposphere exchange.
Johannes C. Laube, Emma C. Leedham Elvidge, Karina E. Adcock, Bianca Baier, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Huilin Chen, Elise S. Droste, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Pauli Heikkinen, Andrew J. Hind, Rigel Kivi, Alexander Lojko, Stephen A. Montzka, David E. Oram, Steve Randall, Thomas Röckmann, William T. Sturges, Colm Sweeney, Max Thomas, Elinor Tuffnell, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9771–9782,Short summary
We demonstrate that AirCore technology, which is based on small low-cost balloons, can provide access to trace gas measurements such as CFCs at ultra-low abundances. This is a new way to quantify ozone-depleting, and related, substances in the stratosphere, which is largely inaccessible to aircraft. We show two potential uses: (a) tracking the stratospheric circulation, which is predicted to change, and (b) assessing three common meteorological reanalyses driving a global stratospheric model.
Thomas von Clarmann, Douglas A. Degenstein, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Stefan Bender, Amy Braverman, André Butz, Steven Compernolle, Robert Damadeo, Seth Dueck, Patrick Eriksson, Bernd Funke, Margaret C. Johnson, Yasuko Kasai, Arno Keppens, Anne Kleinert, Natalya A. Kramarova, Alexandra Laeng, Bavo Langerock, Vivienne H. Payne, Alexei Rozanov, Tomohiro O. Sato, Matthias Schneider, Patrick Sheese, Viktoria Sofieva, Gabriele P. Stiller, Christian von Savigny, and Daniel Zawada
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4393–4436,Short summary
Remote sensing of atmospheric state variables typically relies on the inverse solution of the radiative transfer equation. An adequately characterized retrieval provides information on the uncertainties of the estimated state variables as well as on how any constraint or a priori assumption affects the estimate. This paper summarizes related techniques and provides recommendations for unified error reporting.
Yuanhong Zhao, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Xin Lin, Antoine Berchet, Michaela I. Hegglin, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Ray L. Langenfelds, Michel Ramonet, Doug Worthy, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9525–9546,Short summary
The hydroxyl radical (OH), which is the dominant sink of methane (CH4), plays a key role in closing the global methane budget. This study quantifies how uncertainties in the hydroxyl radical can influence top-down estimates of CH4 emissions based on 4D Bayesian inversions with different OH fields and the same surface observations. We show that uncertainties in CH4 emissions driven by different OH fields are comparable to the uncertainties given by current bottom-up and top-down estimations.
Temesgen Yirdaw Berhe, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Thomas Blumenstock, Frank Hase, and Gabriele P. Stiller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4079–4096,Short summary
The retrieved CH4 and N2O VMR and column amounts from Addis Ababa, tropical site, are found to exhibit very good agreement with all coincident satellite observations (MIPAS, MLS, and AIRS). Furthermore, the bias obtained from the comparison is comparable to the precision of FTIR measurement, which allows the use of data in further scientific studies as it represents a unique environment of tropical Africa, a region poorly investigated in the past.
Benoît Tournadre, Pascale Chelin, Mokhtar Ray, Juan Cuesta, Rebecca D. Kutzner, Xavier Landsheere, Audrey Fortems-Cheiney, Jean-Marie Flaud, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Johannes Orphal, Camille Viatte, and Claude Camy-Peyret
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3923–3937,Short summary
We present some results about ammonia pollution because NH3, mainly emitted by agricultural activities, is a precursor of fine particles. This study is based on the first multiyear time series (2009–2017) of atmospheric NH3 ground-based measurements over the Paris megacity. This pollutant varies seasonally by 2 orders of magnitude, especially in spring. We highlight that this kind of instrument could be easily installed and is very useful for analyzing NH3 in other megacities or source regions.
Marielle Saunois, Ann R. Stavert, Ben Poulter, Philippe Bousquet, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Peter A. Raymond, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Sander Houweling, Prabir K. Patra, Philippe Ciais, Vivek K. Arora, David Bastviken, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Kimberly M. Carlson, Mark Carrol, Simona Castaldi, Naveen Chandra, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick M. Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles L. Curry, Giuseppe Etiope, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Michaela I. Hegglin, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Gustaf Hugelius, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Katherine M. Jensen, Fortunat Joos, Thomas Kleinen, Paul B. Krummel, Ray L. Langenfelds, Goulven G. Laruelle, Licheng Liu, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Joe McNorton, Paul A. Miller, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Jurek Müller, Fabiola Murguia-Flores, Vaishali Naik, Yosuke Niwa, Sergio Noce, Simon O'Doherty, Robert J. Parker, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, Pierre Regnier, William J. Riley, Judith A. Rosentreter, Arjo Segers, Isobel J. Simpson, Hao Shi, Steven J. Smith, L. Paul Steele, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Francesco N. Tubiello, Aki Tsuruta, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Thomas S. Weber, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray F. Weiss, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Yi Yin, Yukio Yoshida, Wenxin Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Yuanhong Zhao, Bo Zheng, Qing Zhu, Qiuan Zhu, and Qianlai Zhuang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1561–1623,Short summary
Understanding and quantifying the global methane (CH4) budget is important for assessing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. We have established a consortium of multidisciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate new research aimed at improving and regularly updating the global methane budget. This is the second version of the review dedicated to the decadal methane budget, integrating results of top-down and bottom-up estimates.
Dmitry A. Belikov, Naoko Saitoh, Prabir K. Patra, and Naveen Chandra
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Corinne Vigouroux, Bavo Langerock, Carlos Augusto Bauer Aquino, Thomas Blumenstock, Zhibin Cheng, Martine De Mazière, Isabelle De Smedt, Michel Grutter, James W. Hannigan, Nicholas Jones, Rigel Kivi, Diego Loyola, Erik Lutsch, Emmanuel Mahieu, Maria Makarova, Jean-Marc Metzger, Isamu Morino, Isao Murata, Tomoo Nagahama, Justus Notholt, Ivan Ortega, Mathias Palm, Gaia Pinardi, Amelie Röhling, Dan Smale, Wolfgang Stremme, Kim Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Michel van Roozendael, Pucai Wang, and Holger Winkler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3751–3767,Short summary
We validate the TROPOMI HCHO product with ground-based FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared) measurements from 25 stations. We find that TROPOMI overestimates HCHO under clean conditions, while it underestimates it at high HCHO levels. Both TROPOMI precision and accuracy reach the pre-launch requirements, and its precision can even be 2 times better. The observed TROPOMI seasonal variability is in agreement with the FTIR data. The TROPOMI random uncertainty and data filtering should be refined.
Fabio Madonna, Rigel Kivi, Jean-Charles Dupont, Bruce Ingleby, Masatomo Fujiwara, Gonzague Romanens, Miguel Hernandez, Xavier Calbet, Marco Rosoldi, Aldo Giunta, Tomi Karppinen, Masami Iwabuchi, Shunsuke Hoshino, Christoph von Rohden, and Peter William Thorne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3621–3649,Short summary
Radiosondes are one of the primary sources of upper-air data for weather and climate monitoring. In the last two decades, technological progress made available automated radiosonde launchers (ARLs), which are able to replace measurements typically performed manually. This work presents a comparative analysis of the technical performance of the ARLs currently available on the market and contribute to define a strategy to achieve the full traceability of the ARL products.
Arne Babenhauserheide, Frank Hase, and Isamu Morino
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2697–2710,Short summary
This paper demonstrates that the carbon dioxide emissions of Tokyo can be estimated from long-term ground-based measurements of column-averaged atmospheric carbon dioxide abundances recorded at the TCCON site Tsukuba.
Rostislav Kouznetsov, Mikhail Sofiev, Julius Vira, and Gabriele Stiller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5837–5859,Short summary
Estimates of the age of stratospheric air (AoA), its distribution, and trends, obtained by different experimental methods, differ among each other. AoA derived form MIPAS satellite observations, the richest observational dataset on sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in the stratosphere, are a clear outlier. With multi-decade simulations of AoA and SF6 in the stratosphere, we show that the origin of the discrepancy is in a methodology of deriving AoA from observations rather than in observational data.
Peter H. Zimmermann, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Andrea Pozzer, Patrick Jöckel, Franziska Winterstein, Andreas Zahn, Sander Houweling, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5787–5809,Short summary
The atmospheric abundance of the greenhouse gas methane is determined by interacting emission sources and sinks in a dynamic global environment. In this study, its global budget from 1997 to 2016 is simulated with a general circulation model using emission estimates of 11 source categories. The model results are evaluated against 17 ground station and 320 intercontinental flight observation series. Deviations are used to re-scale the emission quantities with the aim of matching observations.
Youwen Sun, Cheng Liu, Lin Zhang, Mathias Palm, Justus Notholt, Hao Yin, Corinne Vigouroux, Erik Lutsch, Wei Wang, Changong Shan, Thomas Blumenstock, Tomoo Nagahama, Isamu Morino, Emmanuel Mahieu, Kimberly Strong, Bavo Langerock, Martine De Mazière, Qihou Hu, Huifang Zhang, Christof Petri, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5437–5456,Short summary
We present multiyear time series of ground-based Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements of HCN in densely populated eastern China. The seasonality and interannual variability of tropospheric HCN columns were investigated. The potential sources that drive the observed HCN seasonality and interannual variability were determined using a GEOS-Chem tagged CO simulation, global fire maps, and potential source contribution function values calculated using HYSPLIT back trajectories.
Antoine Berchet, Isabelle Pison, Patrick M. Crill, Brett Thornton, Philippe Bousquet, Thibaud Thonat, Thomas Hocking, Joël Thanwerdas, Jean-Daniel Paris, and Marielle Saunois
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3987–3998,Short summary
Methane isotopes in the atmosphere can help us differentiate between emission processes. A large variety of natural and anthropogenic emission types are active in the Arctic and are unsatisfactorily understood and documented up to now. A ship-based campaign was carried out in summer 2014, providing a unique dataset of isotopic measurements in the Arctic Ocean. Using a chemistry-transport model, we link these measurements to circumpolar emissions and retrieve information about their signature.
Zhipeng Qu, Yi Huang, Paul A. Vaillancourt, Jason N. S. Cole, Jason A. Milbrandt, Man-Kong Yau, Kaley Walker, and Jean de Grandpré
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2143–2159,Short summary
This study aims to better understand the mechanism of transport of water vapour through the mid-latitude tropopause. The results affirm the strong influence of overshooting convection on lower-stratospheric water vapour and highlight the importance of both dynamics and cloud microphysics in simulating water vapour distribution in the region of the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere.
Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Oliver Schneising, Stefan Noël, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Hartmut Boesch, Antonio Di Noia, Jasdeep Anand, Robert J. Parker, Peter Somkuti, Lianghai Wu, Otto P. Hasekamp, Ilse Aben, Akihiko Kuze, Hiroshi Suto, Kei Shiomi, Yukio Yoshida, Isamu Morino, David Crisp, Christopher W. O'Dell, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, Rigel Kivi, David F. Pollard, Frank Hase, Ralf Sussmann, Yao V. Té, Kimberly Strong, Sébastien Roche, Mahesh K. Sha, Martine De Mazière, Dietrich G. Feist, Laura T. Iraci, Coleen M. Roehl, Christian Retscher, and Dinand Schepers
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 789–819,Short summary
We present new satellite-derived data sets of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). The data products are column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, denoted XCO2 and XCH4. The products cover the years 2003–2018 and are merged Level 2 (satellite footprints) and merged Level 3 (gridded at monthly time and 5° x 5° spatial resolution) products obtained from combining several individual sensor products. We present the merging algorithms and product validation results.
Jonas Simon Wilzewski, Anke Roiger, Johan Strandgren, Jochen Landgraf, Dietrich G. Feist, Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Isamu Morino, Hirofumi Ohyama, Yao Té, Rigel Kivi, Thorsten Warneke, Justus Notholt, Manvendra Dubey, Ralf Sussmann, Markus Rettinger, Frank Hase, Kei Shiomi, and André Butz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 731–745,Short summary
Through spectral degradation of GOSAT measurements in the 1.6 and 2.0 μm spectral bands, we mimic a single-band, passive satellite sensor for monitoring of CO2 emissions at fine spatial scales. We compare retrievals of XCO2 from these bands to TCCON and native GOSAT retrievals. At spectral resolutions near 1.3 nm, XCO2 retrievals from both bands show promising performance, but the 2.0 μm band is favorable due to better noise performance and the potential to retrieve some aerosol information.
Stefan Lossow, Charlotta Högberg, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Gabriele P. Stiller, Ralf Bauer, Kaley A. Walker, Sylvia Kellmann, Andrea Linden, Michael Kiefer, Norbert Glatthor, Thomas von Clarmann, Donal P. Murtagh, Jörg Steinwagner, Thomas Röckmann, and Roland Eichinger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 287–308,
Andreas Schneider, Tobias Borsdorff, Joost aan de Brugh, Franziska Aemisegger, Dietrich G. Feist, Rigel Kivi, Frank Hase, Matthias Schneider, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 85–100,Short summary
This paper presents a new H2O/HDO data set from TROPOMI short-wave infrared measurements. It is validated against recent ground-based FTIR measurements from the TCCON network. A bias in TCCON HDO (which is not verified) is corrected by fitting a correction factor for the HDO column to match MUSICA δD for common observations. The use of the new TROPOMI data set is demonstrated using a case study of a blocking anticyclone over Europe in July 2018.
Oliver Schneising, Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Tobias Borsdorff, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Christian Hermans, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Jochen Landgraf, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Sébastien Roche, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Voltaire A. Velazco, Thorsten Warneke, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6771–6802,Short summary
We introduce an algorithm that is used to simultaneously derive the abundances of the important atmospheric constituents carbon monoxide and methane from the TROPOMI instrument onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite, which enables the determination of both gases with an unprecedented level of detail on a global scale. The quality of the resulting data sets is assessed and the first results are presented.
Marco de Bruine, Maarten Krol, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, and Thomas Röckmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 5177–5196,Short summary
An aerosol scheme with multiple aerosol species is introduced in the Dutch Atmospheric Large-Eddy Simulation model (DALES) and focused to simulate the feedback of aerosol–cloud interaction (ACI) on the aerosol population. Cloud aerosol processing is found to be sensitive to the numerical method, while removal by precipitation is more stable. How ACI increases or decreases the mean aerosol size depends on the balance between the evaporation of clouds/rain and ultimate removal by precipitation.
Minqiang Zhou, Bavo Langerock, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Nicolas Kumps, Christian Hermans, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Huilin Chen, Jean-Marc Metzger, Rigel Kivi, Pauli Heikkinen, Michel Ramonet, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6125–6141,Short summary
In this study, CH4 vertical profile is retrieved by SFIT4 code from FTIR NIR spectra based on six sites during 2016–2017. The degree of freedom for signal of the SFIT4NIR retrieval is about 2.4, with two distinct species of information in the troposphere and in the stratosphere. By comparison against other measurements, e.g. TCCON standard products, satellite observations and AirCore measurements, the uncertainties of the SFIT4NIR total column and partial columns are estimated and discussed.
Robert Reichert, Bernd Kaifler, Natalie Kaifler, Markus Rapp, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Alexander Kozlovsky, Mark Lester, and Rigel Kivi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5997–6015,Short summary
To determine gravity wave properties like wavelengths, periods and propagation directions at mesospheric altitudes (∼ 86 km) we combine lidar and airglow temperature and meteor radar wind data. By means of wavelet transformation we investigate the wave field and determine intrinsic wave properties as functions of time and period. We are able to identify several gravity wave packets by their distinct propagation and discover a superposition with possible wave–wave and wave–mean-flow interaction.
Minqiang Zhou, Bavo Langerock, Corinne Vigouroux, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Christian Hermans, Jean-Marc Metzger, Huilin Chen, Michel Ramonet, Rigel Kivi, Pauli Heikkinen, Dan Smale, David F. Pollard, Nicholas Jones, Voltaire A. Velazco, Omaira E. García, Matthias Schneider, Mathias Palm, Thorsten Warneke, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5979–5995,Short summary
The differences between the TCCON and NDACC XCO measurements are investigated and discussed based on six NDACC–TCCON sites (Ny-Ålesund, Bremen, Izaña, Saint-Denis, Wollongong and Lauder) using data over the period 2007–2017. The smoothing errors from both TCCON and NDACC measurements are estimated. In addition, the scaling factor of the TCCON XCO data is reassessed by comparing with the AirCore measurements at Sodankylä and Orléans.
Yuanhong Zhao, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Xin Lin, Antoine Berchet, Michaela I. Hegglin, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Didier A. Hauglustaine, Sophie Szopa, Ann R. Stavert, Nathan Luke Abraham, Alex T. Archibald, Slimane Bekki, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Béatrice Josse, Douglas Kinnison, Ole Kirner, Virginie Marécal, Fiona M. O'Connor, David A. Plummer, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Sarah Strode, Simone Tilmes, Edward J. Dlugokencky, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13701–13723,Short summary
The role of hydroxyl radical changes in methane trends is debated, hindering our understanding of the methane cycle. This study quantifies how uncertainties in the hydroxyl radical may influence methane abundance in the atmosphere based on the inter-model comparison of hydroxyl radical fields and model simulations of CH4 abundance with different hydroxyl radical scenarios during 2000–2016. We show that hydroxyl radical changes could contribute up to 54 % of model-simulated methane biases.
Quentin Errera, Simon Chabrillat, Yves Christophe, Jonas Debosscher, Daan Hubert, William Lahoz, Michelle L. Santee, Masato Shiotani, Sergey Skachko, Thomas von Clarmann, and Kaley Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13647–13679,Short summary
BRAM2 is a 13-year reanalysis of the chemical composition from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere based on the assimilation of the Microwave Limb Sounder observations where eight species are assimilated: O3, H2O, N2O, HNO3, HCl, ClO, CH3Cl and CO. BRAM2 agrees generally well with independent observations in the middle stratosphere, the polar vortex and the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere but also shows several issues in the model and in the observations.
Joël Thanwerdas, Marielle Saunois, Antoine Berchet, Isabelle Pison, Didier Hauglustaine, Michel Ramonet, Cyril Crevoisier, Bianca Baier, Colm Sweeney, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Oxidation by the hydroxyl radical (OH) is the dominant atmospheric sink for methane, contributing to approximately 90 % of the total methane loss. Chemical losses by reaction with atomic oxygen (O1D) and chlorine radicals (Cl) in the stratosphere are other sinks, contributing about 3 % to the total methane destruction. We assess here the impact of atomic Cl on atmospheric methane mixing ratios, methane atmospheric loss and atmospheric isotopic δ13C-CH4 values.
Susan S. Kulawik, Sean Crowell, David Baker, Junjie Liu, Kathryn McKain, Colm Sweeney, Sebastien C. Biraud, Steve Wofsy, Christopher W. O'Dell, Paul O. Wennberg, Debra Wunch, Coleen M. Roehl, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Matthäus Kiel, David W. T. Griffith, Voltaire A. Velazco, Justus Notholt, Thorsten Warneke, Christof Petri, Martine De Mazière, Mahesh K. Sha, Ralf Sussmann, Markus Rettinger, Dave F. Pollard, Isamu Morino, Osamu Uchino, Frank Hase, Dietrich G. Feist, Sébastien Roche, Kimberly Strong, Rigel Kivi, Laura Iraci, Kei Shiomi, Manvendra K. Dubey, Eliezer Sepulveda, Omaira Elena Garcia Rodriguez, Yao Té, Pascal Jeseck, Pauli Heikkinen, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Michael R. Gunson, Annmarie Eldering, David Crisp, Brendan Fisher, and Gregory B. Osterman
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Publication in AMT not foreseenShort summary
This paper provides a benchmark of OCO-2 v8 and ACOS-GOSAT v7.3 XCO2 and lowermost tropospheric (LMT) errors. The paper focuses on the systematic errors and subtracts out validation, co-location, and random errors, looks at the correlation scale-length (spatially and temporally) of systematic errors, finding that the scale lengths are similar to bias correction scale-lengths. The assimilates of the bias correction term is used to place an error on fluxes estimates.
Jacob K. Hedelius, Tai-Long He, Dylan B. A. Jones, Bianca C. Baier, Rebecca R. Buchholz, Martine De Mazière, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Manvendra K. Dubey, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Pascal Jeseck, Matthäus Kiel, Rigel Kivi, Cheng Liu, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, Sébastien Roche, Coleen M. Roehl, Matthias Schneider, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Colm Sweeney, Yao Té, Osamu Uchino, Voltaire A. Velazco, Wei Wang, Thorsten Warneke, Paul O. Wennberg, Helen M. Worden, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5547–5572,Short summary
We seek ways to improve the accuracy of column measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) – an important tracer of pollution – made from the MOPITT satellite instrument. We devise a filtering scheme which reduces the scatter and also eliminates bias among the MOPITT detectors. Compared to ground-based observations, MOPITT measurements are about 6 %–8 % higher. When MOPITT data are implemented in a global assimilation model, they tend to reduce the model mismatch with aircraft measurements.
Tobias Borsdorff, Joost aan de Brugh, Andreas Schneider, Alba Lorente, Manfred Birk, Georg Wagner, Rigel Kivi, Frank Hase, Dietrich G. Feist, Ralf Sussmann, Markus Rettinger, Debra Wunch, Thorsten Warneke, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5443–5455,Short summary
The study presents possible improvements of the TROPOMI CO dataset, which is a primary product of ESA's Sentinel-5P mission. We discuss the use of different molecular spectroscopic databases in the CO retrieval, the induced biases between TROPOMI CO and TCCON validation measurements, and the latitudinally dependent bias between TROPOMI CO and the CAMS-IFS model. Additionally, two methods for the stripe correction of single TROPOMI CO orbits are presented.
Ana Bastos, Philippe Ciais, Frédéric Chevallier, Christian Rödenbeck, Ashley P. Ballantyne, Fabienne Maignan, Yi Yin, Marcos Fernández-Martínez, Pierre Friedlingstein, Josep Peñuelas, Shilong L. Piao, Stephen Sitch, William K. Smith, Xuhui Wang, Zaichun Zhu, Vanessa Haverd, Etsushi Kato, Atul K. Jain, Sebastian Lienert, Danica Lombardozzi, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Philippe Peylin, Benjamin Poulter, and Dan Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12361–12375,Short summary
Here we show that land-surface models improved their ability to simulate the increase in the amplitude of seasonal CO2-cycle exchange (SCANBP) by ecosystems compared to estimates by two atmospheric inversions. We find a dominant role of vegetation growth over boreal Eurasia to the observed increase in SCANBP, strongly driven by CO2 fertilization, and an overall negative effect of temperature on SCANBP. Biases can be explained by the sensitivity of simulated microbial respiration to temperature.
Maxime Prignon, Simon Chabrillat, Daniele Minganti, Simon O'Doherty, Christian Servais, Gabriele Stiller, Geoffrey C. Toon, Martin K. Vollmer, and Emmanuel Mahieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12309–12324,Short summary
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are the first, but temporary, substitution products for the strong ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). In this work, we present and validate an improved method to retrieve the most abundant HCFC in the atmosphere, allowing its evolution to be monitored independently in the troposphere and stratosphere. These kinds of contributions are fundamental for scrutinizing the fulfilment of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
Andreas Luther, Ralph Kleinschek, Leon Scheidweiler, Sara Defratyka, Mila Stanisavljevic, Andreas Forstmaier, Alexandru Dandocsi, Sebastian Wolff, Darko Dubravica, Norman Wildmann, Julian Kostinek, Patrick Jöckel, Anna-Leah Nickl, Theresa Klausner, Frank Hase, Matthias Frey, Jia Chen, Florian Dietrich, Jarosław Nȩcki, Justyna Swolkień, Andreas Fix, Anke Roiger, and André Butz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5217–5230,Short summary
Methane ventilated from hard coal mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland is measured with a mobile Fourier transform spectrometer EM27/SUN. The instrument was mounted on a truck driving in stop-and-go patterns downwind of the methane sources. The emissions are estimated with the cross-sectional flux method. Calculated emissions are in broad agreement with the E-PRTR database. Wind-related errors on the methane estimates dominate the error budget and typically amount to 20 %.
Thibaud Thonat, Marielle Saunois, Isabelle Pison, Antoine Berchet, Thomas Hocking, Brett F. Thornton, Patrick M. Crill, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12141–12161,Short summary
This paper discusses the methane isotopic signals that could be detected at instrumental surface sites in the northern high latitudes using a 3–D chemistry transport model. Isotopic signals may be used in atmospheric inverse systems to better characterize methane emissions and changes. We show that depending on the source magnitude and the location of the site, detecting isotopic signals of specific individual sources may be challenging for the new generation of methane isotope instruments.
Bo Zheng, Frederic Chevallier, Yi Yin, Philippe Ciais, Audrey Fortems-Cheiney, Merritt N. Deeter, Robert J. Parker, Yilong Wang, Helen M. Worden, and Yuanhong Zhao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1411–1436,Short summary
We use a multi-species atmospheric Bayesian inversion approach to attribute satellite-observed atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) variations to its sources and sinks in order to achieve a full closure of the global CO budget during 2000–2017. We identify a declining trend in the global CO budget since 2000, driven by reduced anthropogenic emissions in the US, Europe, and China, as well as by reduced biomass burning emissions globally, especially in equatorial Africa.
Xinxu Zhao, Julia Marshall, Stephan Hachinger, Christoph Gerbig, Matthias Frey, Frank Hase, and Jia Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11279–11302,Short summary
The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), coupled with greenhouse gas (GHG) modules (WRF-GHG), is considered to be a suitable basis for precise GHG transport analysis in urban areas, especially when combined with differential column methodology (DCM). DCM is an effective method not only for comparing models to observations independently of biases caused, for example, by initial conditions, but also for detecting and understanding sources of GHG emissions quantitatively in urban areas.
Laura Cartwright, Andrew Zammit-Mangion, Sangeeta Bhatia, Ivan Schroder, Frances Phillips, Trevor Coates, Karita Negandhi, Travis Naylor, Martin Kennedy, Steve Zegelin, Nick Wokker, Nicholas M. Deutscher, and Andrew Feitz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4659–4676,Short summary
Despite extensive research, emission detection and quantification of greenhouse gases (GHGs) remain an open problem. This article presents a novel statistical framework for detecting and quantifying methane emissions and showcases its efficacy on data collected from different instruments in the 2015 Ginninderra controlled-release experiment. The developed techniques can be used to aid GHG emission reduction schemes by, for example, detecting and quantifying leaks from carbon storage facilities.
Shima Bahramvash Shams, Von P. Walden, Irina Petropavlovskikh, David Tarasick, Rigel Kivi, Samuel Oltmans, Bryan Johnson, Patrick Cullis, Chance W. Sterling, Laura Thölix, and Quentin Errera
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9733–9751,Short summary
The Arctic plays a very important role in the global ozone cycle. We use balloon-borne sampling and satellite data to create a high-quality dataset of the vertical profile of ozone from 2005 to 2017 to analyze ozone variations over four high-latitude Arctic locations. No significant annual trend is found at any of the studied locations. We develop a mathematical model to understand how deseasonalized ozone fluctuations can be influenced by various parameters.
Dan Weaver, Kimberly Strong, Kaley A. Walker, Chris Sioris, Matthias Schneider, C. Thomas McElroy, Holger Vömel, Michael Sommer, Katja Weigel, Alexei Rozanov, John P. Burrows, William G. Read, Evan Fishbein, and Gabriele Stiller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4039–4063,Short summary
This work assesses water vapour profiles acquired by Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite instruments in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) using comparisons to radiosondes and ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectrometer measurements acquired at a Canadian high Arctic measurement site in Eureka, Nunavut. Additional comparisons are made between these Eureka measurements and other water vapour satellite datasets for context, including AIRS, MLS, and others.
Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Isamu Morino, Osamu Uchino, Beata Bukosa, Masataka Ajiro, Akihide Kamei, Nicholas B. Jones, Clare Paton-Walsh, and David W. T. Griffith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 935–946,Short summary
We present ground-based measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide columns from a portable spectrometer taken in a semiarid region of Australia. We compared these measurements to space-based retrievals from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and calibrated them against a Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) instrument to ascertain a retrieval bias. We also present the unique opportunities that Central Australia could offer in the context of satellite product validation.
Sören Johansson, Michelle L. Santee, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Michael Höpfner, Marleen Braun, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Erik Kretschmer, Hermann Oelhaf, Johannes Orphal, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Ines Tritscher, Jörn Ungermann, Kaley A. Walker, and Wolfgang Woiwode
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8311–8338,Short summary
We present a study based on GLORIA aircraft and MLS/ACE-FTS/CALIOP satellite measurements during the Arctic winter 2015/16, which demonstrate (for the Arctic) unusual chlorine deactivation into HCl instead of ClONO2 due to low ozone abundances in the lowermost stratosphere, with a focus at 380 K potential temperature. The atmospheric models CLaMS and EMAC are evaluated, and measured ClONO2 is linked with transport and in situ deactivation in the lowermost stratosphere.
Mark E. Hervig, Benjamin T. Marshall, Scott M. Bailey, David E. Siskind, James M. Russell III, Charles G. Bardeen, Kaley A. Walker, and Bernd Funke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3111–3121,Short summary
The Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE) has measured nitric oxide (NO) from satellite since 2007. The observations are validated through error analysis and comparisons with other satellite observations. Calculated SOFIE NO uncertainties are less than 50 % for altitudes from 40 to 140 km. SOFIE agrees with other measurements to within 50 % for altitudes from roughly 50 to 105 km for spacecraft sunrise and 50 to 140 km for sunsets.
Temesgen Yirdaw Berhe, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Thomas Blumenstock, Frank Hase, Thomas von Clarmann, Justus Notholt, and Emmanuel Mahieu
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
This study aims to assess the latitudinal variation of MIPAS version V5R_CH4_220 and V5R_CH4_224 uncertainty. Furthermore, we analyze the relationship between these uncertainties and the variability of water vapor. Mainly, the high uncertainty found in tropics for MIPAS CH4 220 is highly associated with variability of water vapour. However, this effect has been reduced in the new updated MIPAS CH4 224 datasets due to jointly fitted water profile with methane.
Anna Agustí-Panareda, Michail Diamantakis, Sébastien Massart, Frédéric Chevallier, Joaquín Muñoz-Sabater, Jérôme Barré, Roger Curcoll, Richard Engelen, Bavo Langerock, Rachel M. Law, Zoë Loh, Josep Anton Morguí, Mark Parrington, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Michel Ramonet, Coleen Roehl, Alex T. Vermeulen, Thorsten Warneke, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7347–7376,Short summary
This paper demonstrates the benefits of using global models with high horizontal resolution to represent atmospheric CO2 patterns associated with evolving weather. The modelling of CO2 weather is crucial to interpret the variability from ground-based and satellite CO2 observations, which can then be used to infer CO2 fluxes in atmospheric inversions. The benefits of high resolution come from an improved representation of the topography, winds, tracer transport and CO2 flux distribution.
Beata Bukosa, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Jenny A. Fisher, Dagmar Kubistin, Clare Paton-Walsh, and David W. T. Griffith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7055–7072,Short summary
The carbon greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and CO) were proven to have a large impact on the global carbon cycle and our climate. To understand the variability of the carbon cycle and predict future climate change scenarios, we need to study the processes that drive the changes of these gases in the atmosphere. We study the sources and sinks of CO2, CH4 and CO with a combination of measurements and chemical transport modelling to identify missing, underestimated or overestimated sources in Australia.
Stefan Lossow, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Michael Kiefer, Kaley A. Walker, Jean-Loup Bertaux, Laurent Blanot, James M. Russell, Ellis E. Remsberg, John C. Gille, Takafumi Sugita, Christopher E. Sioris, Bianca M. Dinelli, Enzo Papandrea, Piera Raspollini, Maya García-Comas, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Anu Dudhia, William G. Read, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Robert P. Damadeo, Joseph M. Zawodny, Katja Weigel, Alexei Rozanov, Faiza Azam, Klaus Bramstedt, Stefan Noël, John P. Burrows, Hideo Sagawa, Yasuko Kasai, Joachim Urban, Patrick Eriksson, Donal P. Murtagh, Mark E. Hervig, Charlotta Högberg, Dale F. Hurst, and Karen H. Rosenlof
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2693–2732,
Bärbel Vogel, Rolf Müller, Gebhard Günther, Reinhold Spang, Sreeharsha Hanumanthu, Dan Li, Martin Riese, and Gabriele P. Stiller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6007–6034,Short summary
We identified the transport pathways of air masses from the region of the Asian monsoon (e.g. pollution and greenhouse gases caused by increasing population and growing industries in Asia) into the lower stratosphere. Even small changes of the chemical composition of the lower stratosphere have an impact on surface climate (e.g. surface temperatures). Therefore, it is important to identify transport pathways to the stratosphere to allow potential environmental risks to be assessed.
Leonardo Calle, Benjamin Poulter, and Prabir K. Patra
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2611–2629,Short summary
Satellite observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide offer extraordinary insights into terrestrial ecosystem activity on Earth. The algorithm we present provides researchers with a great deal more information from these satellite data than has been available in the past. We hope the application of this algorithm and analyses tools provides insight into atmospheric dynamics of carbon dioxide and helps inform the development of global ecosystem models in the future.
Corinna Kloss, Marc von Hobe, Michael Höpfner, Kaley A. Walker, Martin Riese, Jörn Ungermann, Birgit Hassler, Stefanie Kremser, and Greg E. Bodeker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2129–2138,Short summary
Are regional and seasonal averages from only a few satellite measurements, all aligned along a specific path, representative? Probably not. We present a method to adjust for the so-called
sampling biasand investigate its influence on derived long-term trends. The method is illustrated and validated for a long-lived trace gas (carbonyl sulfide), and it is shown that the influence of the sampling bias is too small to change scientific conclusions on long-term trends.
Debra Wunch, Dylan B. A. Jones, Geoffrey C. Toon, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Frank Hase, Justus Notholt, Ralf Sussmann, Thorsten Warneke, Jeroen Kuenen, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Jenny A. Fisher, and Joannes D. Maasakkers
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3963–3980,Short summary
We used five atmospheric observatories in Europe measuring total column dry-air mole fractions of methane and carbon monoxide to infer methane emissions in the area between the observatories. We find that the methane emissions are overestimated by the state-of-the-art inventories, and that this is likely due, at least in part, to the inventory disaggregation. We find that there is significant uncertainty in the carbon monoxide inventories that requires further investigation.
Tobias Borsdorff, Joost aan de Brugh, Sudhanshu Pandey, Otto Hasekamp, Ilse Aben, Sander Houweling, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3579–3588,Short summary
The Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) on the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite provides carbon monoxide (CO) total column concentrations based on measurements in the 2.3 μm spectral range with a spatial resolution of 7 km x 7 km and daily global coverage. In this study, we analyzed local CO enhancements in an area around Iran from 1 November to 20 December 2017 using the WRF model and evaluated CO emissions from the cities of Tehran, Yerevan, Urmia, and Tabriz.
Julian Kostinek, Anke Roiger, Kenneth J. Davis, Colm Sweeney, Joshua P. DiGangi, Yonghoon Choi, Bianca Baier, Frank Hase, Jochen Groß, Maximilian Eckl, Theresa Klausner, and André Butz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1767–1783,Short summary
We demonstrate the successful adaption of a laser-based spectrometer for airborne in situ trace gas measurements. The modified instrument allows for precise and simultaneous airborne observation of five climatologically relevant gases. We further report on instrument performance during a first field deployment over the eastern and central USA.
Iris N. Dekker, Sander Houweling, Sudhanshu Pandey, Maarten Krol, Thomas Röckmann, Tobias Borsdorff, Jochen Landgraf, and Ilse Aben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3433–3445,Short summary
During November 2017, very high pollution levels were measured in the northern part of India. In this study, satellite (TROPOMI) data and model (WRF) data on carbon monoxide (CO) are studied to investigate the main sources of the CO pollution over the Indo-Gangetic Plain. We found that residential and commercial combustion was a much more important source of CO than the post-monsoon crop burning during this period. Meteorology was found important in the accumulation and ventilation of CO.
Felix R. Vogel, Matthias Frey, Johannes Staufer, Frank Hase, Grégoire Broquet, Irène Xueref-Remy, Frédéric Chevallier, Philippe Ciais, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Pascale Chelin, Pascal Jeseck, Christof Janssen, Yao Té, Jochen Groß, Thomas Blumenstock, Qiansi Tu, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3271–3285,Short summary
Providing timely information on greenhouse gas emissions to stakeholders at sub-national scale is an emerging challenge and understanding urban CO2 levels is one key aspect. This study uses atmospheric observations of total column CO2 and compares them to numerical simulations to investigate CO2 levels in the Paris metropolitan area due to natural fluxes and anthropogenic emissions. Our measurements reveal the influence of locally added CO2, which our model is also able to predict.
Matthias Frey, Mahesh K. Sha, Frank Hase, Matthäus Kiel, Thomas Blumenstock, Roland Harig, Gregor Surawicz, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Kei Shiomi, Jonathan E. Franklin, Hartmut Bösch, Jia Chen, Michel Grutter, Hirofumi Ohyama, Youwen Sun, André Butz, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Dragos Ene, Debra Wunch, Zhensong Cao, Omaira Garcia, Michel Ramonet, Felix Vogel, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1513–1530,Short summary
In a 3.5-year long study, the long-term performance of a mobile EM27/SUN spectrometer, used for greenhouse gas observations, is checked with respect to a co-located reference spectrometer. We find that the EM27/SUN is stable on timescales of several years, qualifying it for permanent carbon cycle studies. The performance of an ensemble of 30 EM27/SUN spectrometers was also tested in the framework of the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON) and found to be very uniform.
Minqiang Zhou, Bavo Langerock, Kelley C. Wells, Dylan B. Millet, Corinne Vigouroux, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Christian Hermans, Jean-Marc Metzger, Rigel Kivi, Pauli Heikkinen, Dan Smale, David F. Pollard, Nicholas Jones, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Thomas Blumenstock, Matthias Schneider, Mathias Palm, Justus Notholt, James W. Hannigan, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1393–1408,Short summary
N2O is an important atmospheric gas which is observed by two ground-based FTIR networks (TCCON and NDACC). The difference between NDACC and TCCON XN2O measurements is discussed. It is found that the bias between the two networks is within their combined uncertainties. However, TCCON measurements are affected by a priori profiles. In addition, the TCCON and NDACC N2O measurements are compared with the GEOS-Chem model simulations.
Charlotta Högberg, Stefan Lossow, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Ralf Bauer, Kaley A. Walker, Patrick Eriksson, Donal P. Murtagh, Gabriele P. Stiller, Jörg Steinwagner, and Qiong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2497–2526,Short summary
Five δD (H2O) data sets obtained from satellite observations have been evaluated using profile-to-profile and climatological comparisons. The focus is on stratospheric altitudes, but results from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere are also provided. There are clear quantitative differences in the δD ratio in key areas of scientific interest, resulting in difficulties drawing robust conclusions on atmospheric processes affecting the water vapour budget and distribution.
Nicole K. Scharko, Ashley M. Oeck, Russell G. Tonkyn, Stephen P. Baker, Emily N. Lincoln, Joey Chong, Bonni M. Corcoran, Gloria M. Burke, David R. Weise, Tanya L. Myers, Catherine A. Banach, David W. T. Griffith, and Timothy J. Johnson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 763–776,Short summary
We report five species (naphthalene, methyl nitrite, allene, acrolein and acetaldehyde) that were detected in biomass burning fires that had been seen before in burn studies, but are reported for the first time when using infrared spectroscopy for detection.
Dan Smale, Vanessa Sherlock, David W. T. Griffith, Rowena Moss, Gordon Brailsford, Sylvia Nichol, and Michael Kotkamp
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 637–673,Short summary
We present a 10-year (Jan 2007–Dec 2016) time series of continuous in situ measurements of methane, carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide made by an in situ Fourier transform infrared trace gas and isotope analyser operated at Lauder, New Zealand. We perform a practical evaluation of multi-year performance of the analyser and report on operational methodology, measurement precision, reproducibility, accuracy and instrument reliability.
Debora Griffin, Kaley A. Walker, Ingo Wohltmann, Sandip S. Dhomse, Markus Rex, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Gloria L. Manney, Jane Liu, and David Tarasick
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 577–601,Short summary
Ozone in the stratosphere is important to protect the Earth from UV radiation. Using measurements taken by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment satellite between 2005 and 2013, we examine different methods to calculate the ozone loss in the high Arctic and establish the altitude at which most of the ozone is destroyed. Our results show that the different methods agree within the uncertainties. Recommendations are made on which methods are most appropriate to use.
Benjamin Gaubert, Britton B. Stephens, Sourish Basu, Frédéric Chevallier, Feng Deng, Eric A. Kort, Prabir K. Patra, Wouter Peters, Christian Rödenbeck, Tazu Saeki, David Schimel, Ingrid Van der Laan-Luijkx, Steven Wofsy, and Yi Yin
Biogeosciences, 16, 117–134,Short summary
We have compared global carbon budgets calculated from numerical inverse models and CO2 observations, and evaluated how these systems reproduce vertical gradients in atmospheric CO2 from aircraft measurements. We found that available models have converged on near-neutral tropical total fluxes for several decades, implying consistent sinks in intact tropical forests, and that assumed fossil fuel emissions and predicted atmospheric growth rates are now the dominant axes of disagreement.
Mohamadou Diallo, Paul Konopka, Michelle L. Santee, Rolf Müller, Mengchu Tao, Kaley A. Walker, Bernard Legras, Martin Riese, Manfred Ern, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 425–446,Short summary
This paper assesses the structural changes in the shallow and transition branches of the BDC induced by El Nino using the Lagrangian model simulations driven by ERAi and JRA-55 combined with MLS observations. We found a clear evidence of a weakening of the transition branch due to an upward shift in the dissipation height of the planetary and gravity waves and a strengthening of the shallow branch due to enhanced GW breaking in the tropics–subtropics and PW breaking at high latitudes.
Denise Müller-Dum, Thorsten Warneke, Tim Rixen, Moritz Müller, Antje Baum, Aliki Christodoulou, Joanne Oakes, Bradley D. Eyre, and Justus Notholt
Biogeosciences, 16, 17–32,Short summary
Southeast Asian peat-draining rivers are potentially strong sources of carbon to the atmosphere due to the large amounts of organic carbon stored in those ecosystems. We present the first assessment of CO2 emissions from the Rajang River, the largest peat-draining river in Malaysia. The peatlands’ influence on the CO2 emissions from the Rajang River was smaller than expected, probably due to their proximity to the coast. Therefore, the Rajang was only a moderate source of CO2 to the atmosphere.
Joram J. D. Hooghiem, Marcel de Vries, Henk A. Been, Pauli Heikkinen, Rigel Kivi, and Huilin Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6785–6801,Short summary
We have developed a lightweight stratospheric air sampler, named LISA, for measurements of CO2, CH4 and CO mole fractions. The LISA sampler is capable of grabbing stratospheric air samples at an altitude of up to 30 km and provides a useful tool for routine stratospheric measurements of both mole fractions and isotopic composition of trace gases.
Christopher W. O'Dell, Annmarie Eldering, Paul O. Wennberg, David Crisp, Michael R. Gunson, Brendan Fisher, Christian Frankenberg, Matthäus Kiel, Hannakaisa Lindqvist, Lukas Mandrake, Aronne Merrelli, Vijay Natraj, Robert R. Nelson, Gregory B. Osterman, Vivienne H. Payne, Thomas E. Taylor, Debra Wunch, Brian J. Drouin, Fabiano Oyafuso, Albert Chang, James McDuffie, Michael Smyth, David F. Baker, Sourish Basu, Frédéric Chevallier, Sean M. R. Crowell, Liang Feng, Paul I. Palmer, Mavendra Dubey, Omaira E. García, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, Coleen M. Roehl, Mahesh K. Sha, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Te, Osamu Uchino, and Voltaire A. Velazco
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6539–6576,
Corinne Le Quéré, Robbie M. Andrew, Pierre Friedlingstein, Stephen Sitch, Judith Hauck, Julia Pongratz, Penelope A. Pickers, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Glen P. Peters, Josep G. Canadell, Almut Arneth, Vivek K. Arora, Leticia Barbero, Ana Bastos, Laurent Bopp, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Philippe Ciais, Scott C. Doney, Thanos Gkritzalis, Daniel S. Goll, Ian Harris, Vanessa Haverd, Forrest M. Hoffman, Mario Hoppema, Richard A. Houghton, George Hurtt, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Truls Johannessen, Chris D. Jones, Etsushi Kato, Ralph F. Keeling, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Sebastian Lienert, Zhu Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Craig Neill, Are Olsen, Tsueno Ono, Prabir Patra, Anna Peregon, Wouter Peters, Philippe Peylin, Benjamin Pfeil, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Matthias Rocher, Christian Rödenbeck, Ute Schuster, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Tobias Steinhoff, Adrienne Sutton, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco N. Tubiello, Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx, Guido R. van der Werf, Nicolas Viovy, Anthony P. Walker, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Rebecca Wright, Sönke Zaehle, and Bo Zheng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2141–2194,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2018 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Xavier Calbet, Niobe Peinado-Galan, Sergio DeSouza-Machado, Emil Robert Kursinski, Pedro Oria, Dale Ward, Angel Otarola, Pilar Rípodas, and Rigel Kivi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6409–6417,Short summary
The hypothesis whether turbulence within the passive microwave sounders field of view can cause significant biases in radiative transfer modelling at the 183 GHz water vapour absorption band is tested. It is shown that this effect can cause significant biases, which can match the observed ones by Brogniez et al. (2016). They can be explained by locating intense turbulence in the high troposphere, such as the one present in clear air turbulence, cumulus clouds or storms.
David W. T. Griffith
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6189–6201,Short summary
In recent years optical spectroscopic techniques have become commonly used in the determination of mole fractions of trace gases in air. These techniques in many cases determine the mole fractions of only individual isotopic variants (
isotopologues) of the trace gas, while for many applications the total mole fraction of all isotopologues is required. This paper sets out the measurements and calculations required to convert between individual isotopologue and total trace gas amounts.
Marine Remaud, Frédéric Chevallier, Anne Cozic, Xin Lin, and Philippe Bousquet
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4489–4513,Short summary
We compare several versions of a global atmospheric transport model for the simulation of CO2. The representation of subgrid-scale processes modulates the interhemispheric gradient and the amplitude of the seasonal cycle in the Northern Hemisphere. It has the largest impact over Brazil. Refining the horizontal resolution improves the simulation near emission hotspots or along the coastlines. The sensitivities to the land surface model and to the increase in vertical resolution are marginal.
Wolfgang Woiwode, Andreas Dörnbrack, Martina Bramberger, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Florian Haenel, Michael Höpfner, Sören Johansson, Erik Kretschmer, Isabell Krisch, Thomas Latzko, Hermann Oelhaf, Johannes Orphal, Peter Preusse, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, and Jörn Ungermann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15643–15667,Short summary
GLORIA observations during two crossings of the polar front jet stream resolve the fine mesoscale structure of a tropopause fold in high detail. Tracer–tracer correlations of H2O and O3 are presented as a function of potential temperature and reveal an active mixing region. Our study confirms conceptual models of tropopause folds, validates the high quality of ECMWF IFS forecasts, and suggests that mountain waves are capable of modulating exchange processes in the vicinity of tropopause folds.
Michael Höpfner, Terry Deshler, Michael Pitts, Lamont Poole, Reinhold Spang, Gabriele Stiller, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5901–5923,Short summary
Polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) have major relevance to the processes leading to polar ozone depletion. A good understanding of these particles is a prerequisite to predict their role in a changing climate. We present the first global set of PSC volume density profiles derived from the MIPAS satellite measurements covering the entire mission period between 2002 and 2012. A comparison to CALIOP lidar measurements is provided. The dataset can serve as a basis for evaluation of atmospheric models.
Laura Thölix, Alexey Karpechko, Leif Backman, and Rigel Kivi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15047–15067,Short summary
We analyse the impact of water vapour (WV) on Arctic ozone loss and find the strongest impact during intermediately cold stratospheric winters when chlorine activation increases with increasing PSCs and WV. In colder winters the impact is limited because chlorine activation becomes complete at relatively low WV values, so further addition of WV does not affect ozone loss. Our results imply that improved simulations of WV are needed for more reliable projections of ozone layer recovery.
Tobias Borsdorff, Joost aan de Brugh, Haili Hu, Otto Hasekamp, Ralf Sussmann, Markus Rettinger, Frank Hase, Jochen Gross, Matthias Schneider, Omaira Garcia, Wolfgang Stremme, Michel Grutter, Dietrich G. Feist, Sabrina G. Arnold, Martine De Mazière, Mahesh Kumar Sha, David F. Pollard, Matthäus Kiel, Coleen Roehl, Paul O. Wennberg, Geoffrey C. Toon, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5507–5518,Short summary
On 13 October 2017, the S5-P satellite was launched with TROPOMI as its only payload. One of the primary products is atmospheric CO observed with daily global coverage and spatial resolution of 7 × 7 km2. The new dataset allows the sensing of CO enhancements above cities and industrial areas and can track pollution transport from biomass burning regions. Through validation with ground-based TCCON measurements we show that the CO data product is already well within the mission requirement.
Minqiang Zhou, Bavo Langerock, Corinne Vigouroux, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Michel Ramonet, Marc Delmotte, Emmanuel Mahieu, Whitney Bader, Christian Hermans, Nicolas Kumps, Jean-Marc Metzger, Valentin Duflot, Zhiting Wang, Mathias Palm, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13881–13901,Short summary
This study focuses on atmospheric CO and CH4 time series and seasonal variations on Reunion Island based on in situ and FTIR measurements from two sites, Saint Denis and Maido. Ground-based in situ and FTIR (NDACC and TCCON) measurements are used to show their complementarity with regards to obtaining the CO and CH4 concentrations at the surface and in the troposphere and stratosphere. FLEXPART and GEOS-Chem models are applied to understand the seasonal variations of CO and CH4 at this site.
Jan Eiof Jonson, Michael Schulz, Louisa Emmons, Johannes Flemming, Daven Henze, Kengo Sudo, Marianne Tronstad Lund, Meiyun Lin, Anna Benedictow, Brigitte Koffi, Frank Dentener, Terry Keating, Rigel Kivi, and Yanko Davila
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13655–13672,Short summary
Focusing on Europe, this HTAP 2 study computes ozone in several global models when reducing anthropogenic emissions by 20 % in different world regions. The differences in model results are explored by use of a novel stepwise approach combining a tracer, CO and ozone. For ozone the contributions from the rest of the world are larger than from Europe, with the largest contributions from North America and eastern Asia. Contributions do, however, depend on the choice of ozone metric.
Anne Boynard, Daniel Hurtmans, Katerina Garane, Florence Goutail, Juliette Hadji-Lazaro, Maria Elissavet Koukouli, Catherine Wespes, Corinne Vigouroux, Arno Keppens, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Andrea Pazmino, Dimitris Balis, Diego Loyola, Pieter Valks, Ralf Sussmann, Dan Smale, Pierre-François Coheur, and Cathy Clerbaux
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5125–5152,Short summary
In this paper, we perform a comprehensive validation of the IASI/Metop ozone data using independent observations (satellite, ground-based and ozonesonde). The quality of the IASI total and tropospheric ozone columns in terms of bias and long-term stability is generally good. Compared with ozonesonde data, IASI overestimates (underestimates) the ozone abundance in the stratosphere (troposphere). A negative drift in tropospheric ozone is observed, which is not well understood at this point.
Corinne Vigouroux, Carlos Augusto Bauer Aquino, Maite Bauwens, Cornelis Becker, Thomas Blumenstock, Martine De Mazière, Omaira García, Michel Grutter, César Guarin, James Hannigan, Frank Hase, Nicholas Jones, Rigel Kivi, Dmitry Koshelev, Bavo Langerock, Erik Lutsch, Maria Makarova, Jean-Marc Metzger, Jean-François Müller, Justus Notholt, Ivan Ortega, Mathias Palm, Clare Paton-Walsh, Anatoly Poberovskii, Markus Rettinger, John Robinson, Dan Smale, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Wolfgang Stremme, Kim Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, and Geoffrey Toon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5049–5073,Short summary
A few ground-based stations have provided time series of HCHO columns until now, which was not optimal for providing good diagnostics for satellite or model validation. In this work, HCHO time series have been determined in a harmonized way at 21 stations ensuring, in addition to a better spatial and level of abundances coverage, that internal biases within the network have been minimized. This data set shows consistent good agreement with model data and is ready for future satellite validation.
Christian Borger, Matthias Schneider, Benjamin Ertl, Frank Hase, Omaira E. García, Michael Sommer, Michael Höpfner, Stephen A. Tjemkes, and Xavier Calbet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4981–5006,Short summary
In this paper MUSICA IASI tropospheric water vapour profile retrievals are evaluated by performing theoretical error assessments and comparisons to GRUAN radiosonde measurements. We show that the vertical water vapour distribution is well captured from 1 km above the ground up to the tropopause. Largest error sources are unrecognized clouds and uncertainties in atmospheric temperature, which can reach about 25 %.
Sandipan Mukherjee, K Chandra Sekar, Priyanka Lohani, Kireet Kumar, Prabir Patra, and Kentaro Ishijima
Norbert Glatthor, Thomas von Clarmann, Gabriele P. Stiller, Michael Kiefer, Alexandra Laeng, Bianca M. Dinelli, Gerald Wetzel, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4707–4723,Short summary
We report differences in ozone retrievals in channels A and AB of the space-borne Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), which amount to up to 8 %. We provide strong evidence that the bias is caused by inconsistencies in different spectroscopic databases (MIPAS, HITRAN, GEISA). We show that a major part of the differences can be attributed to inconsistent air-broadening coefficients of the ozone lines contained in the databases.
Alexandra Laeng, Ellen Eckert, Thomas von Clarmann, Michael Kiefer, Daan Hubert, Gabriele Stiller, Norbert Glatthor, Manuel López-Puertas, Bernd Funke, Udo Grabowski, Johannes Plieninger, Sylvia Kellmann, Andrea Linden, Stefan Lossow, Arne Babenhauserheide, Lucien Froidevaux, and Kaley Walker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4693–4705,Short summary
MIPAS was an IR limb emission spectrometer on the Envisat platform. From 2002 to 2012, it performed pole-to-pole measurements of ozone during day and night. ESA recently released the new version 7 of Level 1 MIPAS spectra, which is expected to reduce the long-term drift of the MIPAS Level 2 data. We evaluate the long-term stability of ozone Level 2 data from the KIT IMK processor. Our results indicate that MIPAS data are now even more suited for trend studies, alone or as part of merged data.
Maarten Krol, Marco de Bruine, Lars Killaars, Huug Ouwersloot, Andrea Pozzer, Yi Yin, Frederic Chevallier, Philippe Bousquet, Prabir Patra, Dmitry Belikov, Shamil Maksyutov, Sandip Dhomse, Wuhu Feng, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3109–3130,Short summary
The TransCom inter-comparison project regularly carries out studies to quantify errors in simulated atmospheric transport. This paper presents the first results of an age of air (AoA) inter-comparison of six global transport models. Following a protocol, six models simulated five tracers from which atmospheric transport times can easily be deduced. Results highlight that inter-model differences associated with atmospheric transport are still large and require further analysis.
Farahnaz Khosrawi, Stefan Lossow, Gabriele P. Stiller, Karen H. Rosenlof, Joachim Urban, John P. Burrows, Robert P. Damadeo, Patrick Eriksson, Maya García-Comas, John C. Gille, Yasuko Kasai, Michael Kiefer, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Stefan Noël, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Alexei Rozanov, Christopher E. Sioris, Kaley A. Walker, and Katja Weigel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4435–4463,Short summary
Time series of stratospheric and lower mesospheric water vapour using 33 data sets from 15 satellite instruments were compared in the framework of the second SPARC water vapour assessment. We find that most data sets can be considered in observational and modelling studies addressing, e.g. stratospheric and lower mesospheric water vapour variability and trends if data-set-specific characteristics (e.g. a drift) and restrictions (e.g. temporal and spatial coverage) are taken into account.
Omaira E. García, Matthias Schneider, Benjamin Ertl, Eliezer Sepúlveda, Christian Borger, Christopher Diekmann, Andreas Wiegele, Frank Hase, Sabine Barthlott, Thomas Blumenstock, Uwe Raffalski, Angel Gómez-Peláez, Martin Steinbacher, Ludwig Ries, and Angel M. de Frutos
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4171–4215,Short summary
This work presents the CH4 and N2O products of the MUSICA IASI processor. We analytically assess precisions of 1.5–3 %, good sensitivity in the UTLS region (for CH4 and N2O) and a possibility for retrieving free-tropospheric CH4 at low latitudes independently from CH4 in the UTLS. This is confirmed by comparison to HIPPO profile data (covering a large latitudinal range), continuous GAW data (covering 9 years) and NDACC FTIR data (covering 10 years and three different climate zones).
Xin Lin, Philippe Ciais, Philippe Bousquet, Michel Ramonet, Yi Yin, Yves Balkanski, Anne Cozic, Marc Delmotte, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Nuggehalli K. Indira, Robin Locatelli, Shushi Peng, Shilong Piao, Marielle Saunois, Panangady S. Swathi, Rong Wang, Camille Yver-Kwok, Yogesh K. Tiwari, and Lingxi Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9475–9497,Short summary
We simulate CH4 and CO2 using a zoomed global transport model with a horizontal resolution of ~50 km over South and East Asia, as well as a standard model version for comparison. Model performance is evaluated for both gases and versions at multiple timescales against a new collection of surface stations over this key GHG-emitting region. The evaluation at different timescales and comparisons between gases and model versions have implications for possible model improvements and inversions.
Arno Keppens, Jean-Christopher Lambert, José Granville, Daan Hubert, Tijl Verhoelst, Steven Compernolle, Barry Latter, Brian Kerridge, Richard Siddans, Anne Boynard, Juliette Hadji-Lazaro, Cathy Clerbaux, Catherine Wespes, Daniel R. Hurtmans, Pierre-François Coheur, Jacob C. A. van Peet, Ronald J van der A, Katerina Garane, Maria Elissavet Koukouli, Dimitris S. Balis, Andy Delcloo, Rigel Kivi, Réné Stübi, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Michel Van Roozendael, and Claus Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3769–3800,Short summary
This work, performed at the Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy and the second in a series of four Ozone_cci papers, reports for the first time on data content studies, information content studies, and comparisons with co-located ground-based reference observations for all 13 nadir ozone profile data products that are part of the Climate Research Data Package (CRDP) on atmospheric ozone of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative.
Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Gabriele Stiller, Michael Höpfner, Michelle L. Santee, Sylvia Kellmann, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8873–8892,Short summary
An extensive assessment of the performance of the chemistry–climate model EMAC is given for Arctic winters 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The EMAC simulations are compared to satellite observations. The comparisons between EMAC simulations and satellite observations show that model and measurements compare well for these two Arctic winters. However, differences between model and observations are found that need improvements in the model in the future.
Stefan Lossow, Dale F. Hurst, Karen H. Rosenlof, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Sabine Brinkop, Martin Dameris, Patrick Jöckel, Doug E. Kinnison, Johannes Plieninger, David A. Plummer, Felix Ploeger, William G. Read, Ellis E. Remsberg, James M. Russell, and Mengchu Tao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8331–8351,Short summary
Trend estimates of lower stratospheric H2O derived from the FPH observations at Boulder and a merged zonal mean satellite data set clearly differ for the time period from the late 1980s to 2010. We investigate if a sampling bias between Boulder and the zonal mean around the Boulder latitude can explain these trend discrepancies. Typically they are small and not sufficient to explain the trend discrepancies in the observational database.
Lianghai Wu, Otto Hasekamp, Haili Hu, Jochen Landgraf, Andre Butz, Joost aan de Brugh, Ilse Aben, Dave F. Pollard, David W. T. Griffith, Dietrich G. Feist, Dmitry Koshelev, Frank Hase, Geoffrey C. Toon, Hirofumi Ohyama, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Kei Shiomi, Laura Iraci, Matthias Schneider, Martine de Mazière, Ralf Sussmann, Rigel Kivi, Thorsten Warneke, Tae-Young Goo, and Yao Té
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3111–3130,
Sandy P. Harrison, Patrick J. Bartlein, Victor Brovkin, Sander Houweling, Silvia Kloster, and I. Colin Prentice
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 663–677,Short summary
Temperature affects fire occurrence and severity. Warming will increase fire-related carbon emissions and thus atmospheric CO2. The size of this feedback is not known. We use charcoal records to estimate pre-industrial fire emissions and a simple land–biosphere model to quantify the feedback. We infer a feedback strength of 5.6 3.2 ppm CO2 per degree of warming and a gain of 0.09 ± 0.05 for a climate sensitivity of 2.8 K. Thus, fire feedback is a large part of the climate–carbon-cycle feedback.
Sourish Basu, David F. Baker, Frédéric Chevallier, Prabir K. Patra, Junjie Liu, and John B. Miller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7189–7215,Short summary
CO2 measurements from the global surface network and CO2 estimates from satellites such as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) are currently used to quantify the surface sources and sinks of CO2, using what we know about atmospheric transport of gases. In this work, we quantify the uncertainties in those surface source/sink estimates that stem from errors in our atmospheric transport models, using an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE).
Youwen Sun, Mathias Palm, Cheng Liu, Frank Hase, David Griffith, Christine Weinzierl, Christof Petri, Wei Wang, and Justus Notholt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2879–2896,Short summary
We simulated instrumental line shape (ILS) degradations with respect to typical types of misalignment, and compared their influence on each NDACC gas. The requirements to suppress the ILS-degradation-related biases within a specified accuracy for all NDACC gases were deduced.
Felicia Kolonjari, David A. Plummer, Kaley A. Walker, Chris D. Boone, James W. Elkins, Michaela I. Hegglin, Gloria L. Manney, Fred L. Moore, Diane Pendlebury, Eric A. Ray, Karen H. Rosenlof, and Gabriele P. Stiller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6801–6828,Short summary
We used satellite observations and model simulations of CFC-11, CFC-12, and N2O to investigate stratospheric transport, which is important for predicting the recovery of the ozone layer and future climate. We found that sampling can impact results and that the model consistently overestimates concentrations of these gases in the lower stratosphere, consistent with a too rapid Brewer–Dobson circulation. An issue with mixing in the tropical lower stratosphere in June–July–August was also found.
Natalya A. Kramarova, Pawan K. Bhartia, Glen Jaross, Leslie Moy, Philippe Xu, Zhong Chen, Matthew DeLand, Lucien Froidevaux, Nathaniel Livesey, Douglas Degenstein, Adam Bourassa, Kaley A. Walker, and Patrick Sheese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2837–2861,Short summary
The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Limb Profiler (LP) is a newly designed research sensor aiming to continue high vertical resolution ozone records from space-borne sensors. In summer 2017 all LP measurements were processed with the new version 2.5 algorithm. In this paper we provide a description of the key changes implemented in the new algorithm and evaluate the quality of ozone retrievals by comparing with independent satellite profile measurements (MLS, ACE-FTS and OSIRIS).
Young-Suk Oh, S. Takele Kenea, Tae-Young Goo, Kyu-Sun Chung, Jae-Sang Rhee, Mi-Lim Ou, Young-Hwa Byun, Paul O. Wennberg, Matthäus Kiel, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Voltaire A. Velazco, and David W. T. Griffith
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2361–2374,Short summary
We focused on the measurements taken during the period of February 2014 to November 2017. The FTS instrument was stable during the whole measurement period. The g-b FTS retrieval of XCO2 and XCH4 were compared with aircraft measurements that were conducted over Anmyeondo station on 22 May 2016, 29 October, and 12 November 2017. The preliminary comparison results of XCO2 between FTS and OCO-2 were also presented over the Anmyeondo station.
Manuel López-Puertas, Maya García-Comas, Bernd Funke, Angela Gardini, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Norbert Glatthor, Alexandra Laeng, Martin Kaufmann, Viktoria F. Sofieva, Lucien Froidevaux, Kaley A. Walker, and Masato Shiotani
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2187–2212,Short summary
This paper describes the inversion of O3 data from MIPAS middle atmosphere spectra which requires non-LTE. The O3 dataset comprises from 20 to 100 km, has a pole-to-pole latitude coverage, day and nighttime, and span from 2005 until 2012. A validation of the data against other satellite measurements and an overall description of O3 is also presented. This is an important dataset for the community and describes the major characteristics of stratospheric and mesospheric O3.
Marco de Bruine, Maarten Krol, Twan van Noije, Philippe Le Sager, and Thomas Röckmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1443–1465,Short summary
Precipitation evaporation (PE) and subsequent aerosol resuspension (AR) are currently ignored or implemented only crudely in GCMs. This research introduces PE to Earth system model EC-Earth and explores ways to treat AR and the impact on global aerosol burden. Simple 1:1 scaling of AR with PE leads to an increase (+8 to 15.9 %). Taking into account raindrop size distribution and/or accounting for in-rain aerosol processing decreases aerosol burden -1.5 to 6.2 % and -10 to -11 %, respectively.
Martine De Mazière, Anne M. Thompson, Michael J. Kurylo, Jeannette D. Wild, Germar Bernhard, Thomas Blumenstock, Geir O. Braathen, James W. Hannigan, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Thierry Leblanc, Thomas J. McGee, Gerald Nedoluha, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Gunther Seckmeyer, Paul C. Simon, Wolfgang Steinbrecht, and Susan E. Strahan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4935–4964,Short summary
This paper serves as an introduction to the special issue "Twenty-five years of operations of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC)". It describes the origins of the network, its actual status, and some perspectives for its future evolution in the context of atmospheric sciences.
Yilong Wang, Grégoire Broquet, Philippe Ciais, Frédéric Chevallier, Felix Vogel, Lin Wu, Yi Yin, Rong Wang, and Shu Tao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4229–4250,Short summary
This paper assesses the potential of atmospheric 14CO2 observations and a global inversion system to solve for fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions in Europe. The estimate of monthly emission budgets is largely improved in high emitting regions. The results are sensitive to the observation network and the prior uncertainty. Using a high-resolution transport model and a systematic evaluation of the uncertainty in current emission inventories should improve the potential to retrieve FFCO2 emissions.
David W. T. Griffith, Denis Pöhler, Stefan Schmitt, Samuel Hammer, Sanam N. Vardag, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1549–1563,Short summary
Measurements of atmospheric trace gases over an open path complement in situ measurements by spatial averaging. This paper describes the first open-path measurements of CO2, CH4 and other trace gases by near-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. The measurements were made in Heidelberg, Germany, for 4 months in 2014 over a 1.5 km path and compared to in situ measurements made at one end of the path. The experiment setup and methods (and the comparisons of open path to in situ) are described.
Isabelle Pison, Antoine Berchet, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Grégoire Broquet, Sébastien Conil, Marc Delmotte, Anita Ganesan, Olivier Laurent, Damien Martin, Simon O'Doherty, Michel Ramonet, T. Gerard Spain, Alex Vermeulen, and Camille Yver Kwok
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3779–3798,Short summary
Methane emissions on the national scale in France in 2012 are inferred by assimilating continuous atmospheric mixing ratio measurements from nine stations of the European network ICOS. Two complementary inversion set-ups are computed and analysed: (i) a regional run correcting for the spatial distribution of fluxes in France and (ii) a sectorial run correcting fluxes for activity sectors on the national scale. The results are compared with existing inventories and other regional inversions.
Magnus Gålfalk, Martin Karlson, Patrick Crill, Philippe Bousquet, and David Bastviken
Biogeosciences, 15, 1549–1557,Short summary
We describe a quick in situ method for mapping ground surface cover, calculating areas of each surface type in a 10 x 10 m plot for each measurement. The method is robust, weather-independent, easily carried out, and uses wide-field imaging with a standard remote-controlled camera mounted on a very long extendible monopod from a height of 3–4.5 m. The method enables collection of detailed field reference data, critical in many remote sensing applications, such as wetland mapping.
Vanessa Selimovic, Robert J. Yokelson, Carsten Warneke, James M. Roberts, Joost de Gouw, James Reardon, and David W. T. Griffith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2929–2948,Short summary
We burned fuels representing western US wildfires in large-scale laboratory simulations to generate relevant emissions as confirmed by lab–field comparison. We report emission factors (EFs) for light scattering and absorption and BC along with SSA at 870 and 401 nm and AAE. We report EF for 22 trace gases that are major inorganic and organic emissions from flaming and smoldering. We report trace gas EF for species rarely (NH3) or not yet measured (e.g., HONO, acetic acid) for real US wildfires.
Minqiang Zhou, Bavo Langerock, Corinne Vigouroux, Pucai Wang, Christian Hermans, Gabriele Stiller, Kaley A. Walker, Geoff Dutton, Emmanuel Mahieu, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 651–662,Short summary
SF6 total columns are successfully retrieved from FTIR measurements (Saint Denis and Maïdo) at Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E) between 2004 and 2016 using the SFIT4 algorithm: the retrieval strategy and the error budget are discussed. The trend of SF6 is analysed based on the FTIR retrievals at Reunion Island, the in situ measurements at America Samoa (SMO) and the collocated satellite measurements (MIPAS and ACE-FTS) in the southern tropics. The results show good agreement.
Annika Günther, Michael Höpfner, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Sabine Griessbach, Terry Deshler, Thomas von Clarmann, and Gabriele Stiller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1217–1239,Short summary
Satellite-borne data of sulfur dioxide and a new data set of sulfate aerosol volume densities, as retrieved from MIPAS measurements, are studied in the upper-troposphere–lower-stratosphere region. General patterns of enhanced aerosol are in agreement with SO2. Via chemical transport model simulations for two volcanic eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes, we show that the volcanic enhancements in MIPAS SO2 and sulfate aerosol are consistent in terms of mass and transport patterns.
Miriam Sinnhuber, Uwe Berger, Bernd Funke, Holger Nieder, Thomas Reddmann, Gabriele Stiller, Stefan Versick, Thomas von Clarmann, and Jan Maik Wissing
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1115–1147,Short summary
Results from global models are used to analyze the impact of energetic particle precipitation on the middle atmosphere (10–80 km). Model results agree well with observations, and show strong enhancements of NOy, long-lasting ozone loss, and a net heating in the uppermost stratosphere (~35–45 km) during polar winter which changes sign in spring. Energetic particle precipitation therefore has the potential to impact atmospheric dynamics, starting from a warmer winter-time upper stratosphere.
Peter Bergamaschi, Ute Karstens, Alistair J. Manning, Marielle Saunois, Aki Tsuruta, Antoine Berchet, Alexander T. Vermeulen, Tim Arnold, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Samuel Hammer, Ingeborg Levin, Martina Schmidt, Michel Ramonet, Morgan Lopez, Jost Lavric, Tuula Aalto, Huilin Chen, Dietrich G. Feist, Christoph Gerbig, László Haszpra, Ove Hermansen, Giovanni Manca, John Moncrieff, Frank Meinhardt, Jaroslaw Necki, Michal Galkowski, Simon O'Doherty, Nina Paramonova, Hubertus A. Scheeren, Martin Steinbacher, and Ed Dlugokencky
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 901–920,Short summary
European methane (CH4) emissions are estimated for 2006–2012 using atmospheric in situ measurements from 18 European monitoring stations and 7 different inverse models. Our analysis highlights the potential significant contribution of natural emissions from wetlands (including peatlands and wet soils) to the total European emissions. The top-down estimates of total EU-28 CH4 emissions are broadly consistent with the sum of reported anthropogenic CH4 emissions and the estimated natural emissions.
Robert P. Damadeo, Joseph M. Zawodny, Ellis E. Remsberg, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 535–554,Short summary
An ozone trend analysis that compensates for sampling biases is applied to sparsely sampled occultation data sets. International assessments have noted deficiencies in past trend analyses and this work addresses those sources of uncertainty. The nonuniform sampling patterns in data sets and drifts between data sets can affect derived recovery trends by up to 2 % decade−1. The limitations inherent to all techniques are also described and a potential path forward towards resolution is presented.
Sébastien Ars, Grégoire Broquet, Camille Yver Kwok, Yelva Roustan, Lin Wu, Emmanuel Arzoumanian, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 5017–5037,Short summary
This study presents a new concept for estimating the pollutant emission rates of a site combining the tracer release method, local-scale atmospheric transport modelling and a statistical atmospheric inversion approach. The potential of this new concept is evaluated with a practical implementation based on a series of inversions of controlled methane and tracer point sources in different spatial configurations to assess the efficiency of the method in comparison with the classic tracer method.
Iris N. Dekker, Sander Houweling, Ilse Aben, Thomas Röckmann, Maarten Krol, Sara Martínez-Alonso, Merritt N. Deeter, and Helen M. Worden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14675–14694,Short summary
This study estimates carbon monoxide emissions from the city of Madrid using MOPITT satellite data. There are two methods used and reviewed in this paper: a method that can only estimate a trend in the emission and a newly developed method that also includes model data from WRF to quantify the emissions. We find Madrid CO emissions to be lower by 48 % for 2002 and by 17 % for 2006 compared with the EdgarV4.2 emission inventory, but uncertainty (20 to 50 %) remains.
David F. Pollard, Vanessa Sherlock, John Robinson, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Brian Connor, and Hisako Shiona
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 977–992,
Gerald E. Nedoluha, Michael Kiefer, Stefan Lossow, R. Michael Gomez, Niklaus Kämpfer, Martin Lainer, Peter Forkman, Ole Martin Christensen, Jung Jin Oh, Paul Hartogh, John Anderson, Klaus Bramstedt, Bianca M. Dinelli, Maya Garcia-Comas, Mark Hervig, Donal Murtagh, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Karen Rosenlof, Gabriele P. Stiller, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14543–14558,Short summary
As part of the second SPARC (Stratosphere–troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate) water vapor assessment (WAVAS-II), we present measurements taken from or coincident with seven sites from which ground-based microwave instruments measure water vapor in the middle atmosphere. In the lower mesosphere, we quantify instrumental differences in the observed trends and annual variations at six sites. We then present a range of observed trends in water vapor over the past 20 years.
Chao Yue, Philippe Ciais, Ana Bastos, Frederic Chevallier, Yi Yin, Christian Rödenbeck, and Taejin Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13903–13919,Short summary
The year 2015 appeared as a paradox regarding how global carbon cycle has responded to climate variation: it is the greenest year since 2000 according to satellite observation, but the atmospheric CO2 growth rate is also the highest since 1959. We found that this is due to a only moderate land carbon sink, because high growing-season sink in northern lands has been partly offset by autumn and winter release and the late-year El Niño has led to an abrupt transition to land source in the tropics.
Yana A. Virolainen, Yury M. Timofeyev, Vladimir S. Kostsov, Dmitry V. Ionov, Vladislav V. Kalinnikov, Maria V. Makarova, Anatoly V. Poberovsky, Nikita A. Zaitsev, Hamud H. Imhasin, Alexander V. Polyakov, Matthias Schneider, Frank Hase, Sabine Barthlott, and Thomas Blumenstock
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4521–4536,Short summary
Water vapour is one of the most important gases in the Earth’s atmosphere and plays a unique role in climate and weather forming. Cross-comparison of different systems for monitoring the atmospheric integrated water vapour (IWV) measurements is an essential part of their testing and validation protocol. We compare coincident measurements of IWV by different techniques over Saint Petersburg (Russia), assess their quality in various atmospheric conditions, and give recommendation for data users.
Marc D. Mallet, Maximilien J. Desservettaz, Branka Miljevic, Andelija Milic, Zoran D. Ristovski, Joel Alroe, Luke T. Cravigan, E. Rohan Jayaratne, Clare Paton-Walsh, David W. T. Griffith, Stephen R. Wilson, Graham Kettlewell, Marcel V. van der Schoot, Paul Selleck, Fabienne Reisen, Sarah J. Lawson, Jason Ward, James Harnwell, Min Cheng, Rob W. Gillett, Suzie B. Molloy, Dean Howard, Peter F. Nelson, Anthony L. Morrison, Grant C. Edwards, Alastair G. Williams, Scott D. Chambers, Sylvester Werczynski, Leah R. Williams, V. Holly L. Winton, Brad Atkinson, Xianyu Wang, and Melita D. Keywood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13681–13697,Short summary
Fires play an important role within atmosphere. Gaseous and aerosol emissions influence Earth's temperature but these emissions can vary drastically across region and season. The SAFIRED (Savannah Fires in the Early Dry Season) campaign was undertaken at the Australian Tropical Research Station in north Australia during the 2014 early dry season. This paper presents an overview of the fires in this region, the measurements of their emissions and the implications of these fires on the atmosphere.
Jenny A. Fisher, Lee T. Murray, Dylan B. A. Jones, and Nicholas M. Deutscher
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4129–4144,Short summary
Carbon monoxide (CO) simulation in atmospheric chemistry models is used for source–receptor analysis, emission inversion, and interpretation of observations. We introduce a major update to CO simulation in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model that removes fundamental inconsistencies relative to the standard model, resolving biases of more than 100 ppb and errors in vertical structure. We also add source tagging of secondary CO and demonstrate it provides added value in low-emission regions.
Emily M. McCullough, Robert J. Sica, James R. Drummond, Graeme Nott, Christopher Perro, Colin P. Thackray, Jason Hopper, Jonathan Doyle, Thomas J. Duck, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4253–4277,Short summary
CRL lidar in the Canadian High Arctic uses lasers and a telescope to study polar clouds, essential for understanding the changing global climate. Hardware added to CRL allows it to measure the polarization of returned laser light, indicating whether cloud particles are liquid or frozen. Calibrations show that traditional analysis methods work well, although CRL was not originally set up to make this type of measurement. CRL can now measure cloud particle phase every 5 min, every 37.5 m, 24h/day.
Zhiting Wang, Thorsten Warneke, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Justus Notholt, Ute Karstens, Marielle Saunois, Matthias Schneider, Ralf Sussmann, Harjinder Sembhi, David W. T. Griffith, Dave F. Pollard, Rigel Kivi, Christof Petri, Voltaire A. Velazco, Michel Ramonet, and Huilin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13283–13295,Short summary
In this paper we separate the biases of atmospheric methane models into stratospheric and tropospheric parts. It is observed in other studies that simulated total columns of atmospheric methane present a latitudinal bias compared to measurements. The latitudinal gradients are considered to be from the stratosphere. However, our results show that the latitudinal biases could come from the troposphere in two of three models evaluated in this study.
Naveen Chandra, Sachiko Hayashida, Tazu Saeki, and Prabir K. Patra
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12633–12643,Short summary
This study shows difficulties in interpreting columnar dry-air mole fractions of methane (XCH4) for surface emissions of CH4 over the South Asia region, without separating the role of chemistry and transport. Using a chemistry-transport model, we suggest that a link between surface emissions and higher levels of XCH4 is not always valid in this region of complex monsoonal meteorology, although there is often a fair correlation between the seasonal variations in surface emissions and XCH4.
Viktoria F. Sofieva, Erkki Kyrölä, Marko Laine, Johanna Tamminen, Doug Degenstein, Adam Bourassa, Chris Roth, Daniel Zawada, Mark Weber, Alexei Rozanov, Nabiz Rahpoe, Gabriele Stiller, Alexandra Laeng, Thomas von Clarmann, Kaley A. Walker, Patrick Sheese, Daan Hubert, Michel van Roozendael, Claus Zehner, Robert Damadeo, Joseph Zawodny, Natalya Kramarova, and Pawan K. Bhartia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12533–12552,Short summary